Del Mar Photonics - Del Mar Photonics Fall 2010 Newsletter - Newsletter Summer, 2008

2008 FISFES Workshop - contact us to arange a meeting during this event!
The International Workshop on Frontiers in Space and Fusion Energy Sciences
November 6 ?8
Plasma and Space Science Center (PSSC)
National Cheng Kung University
Tainan, Taiwan

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Organizing Committee

 C. Z. Frank Cheng, Chair
Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
成功大學電漿與太空科學中心 陳秋榮主任
 Wing-Huen Ip
National Central University, Taiwan
中央大學 葉永烜副校長
 Jiun-Jih Miau
National Space Organization, Taiwan
國家太空中心 苗君易主任
 Taun-Ran Yeh
Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan
原能會核能研究所 葉陶然所長

Sponsor Organization (主辦單位)

 Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
成功大學電漿與太空科學中心

Co-sponsor Organizations (協辦單位)

 National Space Organization, Taiwan
國家太空中心
 Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan
原能會核能研究所
 Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Taiwan
中央大學太空科學研究所
 National Center for Theoretical Science, Taiwan
國家理論科學中心

Prologue
In conjunction with the grand opening ceremony of Plasma and Space Science Center (PSSC) of the National Cheng Kung University on November 6, 2008, the International Workshop on Frontiers In Space and Fusion Energy Sciences (FISFES) is held to commemorate this special occasion. The three-day FISFES workshop aims to provide a forum to promote these two scientific fields, exchange ideas, and foster international collaborations. In the FISFES workshop there are 30 oral talks and 20 poster presentations covering space science and satellite missions, basic plasma physics and fusion energy research, microwave diagnostics and generation, laser-plasma interaction, and astrophysical research. There are 18 talks given by international experts and science program leaders from USA, Japan, Korea and Sweden and 12 talks given by domestic experts.
PSSC was founded in August 2006 to initiate high-temperature magnetized plasma physics research in Taiwan with the goals of establishing research capability in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion energy plasma science, space science and satellite instrument development, and training young scientists. Besides theory, simulation, and data analysis, PSSC emphasizes on experimental research and has established a number of laboratories to explore various applications of high-temperature plasma. Currently, the research facilities of PSSC include a space instrument laboratory, a plasma science laboratory, a microwave laboratory, and a computing resource laboratory.
The space instrument laboratory, in particular, is presently the only facility in Taiwan that designs, builds and tests instruments for the purpose of space satellite science missions. It aims to provide instruments for plasma observations in future Taiwanese satellite missions. Furthermore, the laboratory will open up new opportunities for Taiwan to participate in international collaborative missions, for example, by providing instruments on board spacecraft of other nations.
As for laboratory plasma research, the plasma science laboratory has placed one of its focuses on building the first Taiwan high-temperature magnetized plasma experimental devices. Presently the laboratory is constructing a magnetic mirror device, which is scheduled for completion in early 2009. Experiments of basic magnetized plasmas relevant to the sciences of fusion and space plasmas will be conducted. Through those experiments, the laboratory aims to contribute in advancing fusion energy research and understanding the space plasma environment.

2008 FISFES Program Committee


電漿與太空科學中心開幕典禮
Plasma and Space Science Center
Grand Opening Ceremony

時間: 中華民國97年11月6日早上十點至十二點
10:00 am - 12:00 pm, November 6, 2008
地點: 國立成功大學理化大樓格致廳
Building of Physics & Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University


10:00 ?10:30 報到
Registration
10:30 ?10:45 致詞
Opening Remarks
10:45 ?11:15 電漿與太空科學中心介紹
Presentation of Plasma and Space Science Center Program
11:15 ?11:30 揭牌儀式 & 團體照 (綜合大樓正門)
Opening Ceremony & Group Photo
(Composite Building)
11:30 ?12:00 實驗室參觀
Laboratory Tour
12:00 午餐 (物理二館地下室49x06)
Lunch (Room 49x06, Physics 2nd Building)


2008 International Workshop on Frontiers in
Space and Fusion Energy Sciences (FISFES)


Contents

1. Program/大會議程 P. 1

2. Abstracts/論文摘要 P. 7

3. Information/相關資訊 P. 57
3.1 Venue/會議地點 P. 57
3.2 Transportation Information P. 59


1. Program/大會議程


Session Chair: A. W. Yau
13:30 ?14:00 Daniel N. Baker
The International Living With a Star (ILWS) Program: Basic Space Science with a High Public Purpose
14:00 ?14:30 Masaki Fujimoto
Space Plasma Missions of ISAS, JAXA for the Next 20 Years
14:30 ?15:00 Robert P. Lin
Present and Future Research Directions and Space Missions for the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley
15:00 ?15:30 Jiun-Jih Miau
An Overview of Space Program in Taiwan
15:30 ?16:00 Break
Session Chair: William Tang
16:00 ?16:30 M. Kwon (G. S. Lee et al.)
KSTAR Construction, Commissioning and its Implication to the ITER Project
16:30 ?17:00 Mitsuru Kikuchi
Progress of Physics of Steady-state Tokamak towards Fusion Energy Utilization in the Later Half of 21st Century
17:00 ?17:30 Shigeru Sudo
Recent Research Activities at National Institute for Fusion Science Towards Steady-State Fusion Reactor
17:30 ?18:00 James W. Van Dam
Progress toward Burning Plasmas
18:10 Bus Departure for Reception

 

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Session Chair: Shigeru Sudo
09:00 ?09:30 Hyeon K. Park
Paradigm change in Fusion Science Research and University Fusion Science Research Centers in Korea
09:30 ?10:00 Atsushi Mase
Advancements of Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
10:00 ?10:30 William Tang
Advances & Challenges in Computational Plasma Science
10:30 ?10:50 Break
Session Chair: James W. Van Dam
10:50 ?11:10 K. C. Shaing
Importance of Neoclassical Transport Theory to Tokamak Confinement
11:10 ?11:30 M. Yagi
Multi-scale Simulation Research in Fusion Plasmas
11:30 ?11:50 Hsiang-Kuang Chang
The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) Project
11:50 ?12:10 Ming-Tang Chen
Millimeter-wave Imaging in Astronomy
12:10 ?13:10 Lunch
Session Chair: Daniel N. Baker
13:10 ?13:40 Andrew W. Yau
Low-Energy Plasma in Near-Earth Space: High-Resolution In-Situ Studies

13:40 ?14:10 Masafumi Hirahara
Plasma/Particle Instruments and Japan-Taiwan Collaboration for the Geospace Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Explorations
14:10 ?14:30 Alfred B.-C. Chen
Science Results of the Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on FORMOSAT-2
14:30 ?14:50 C. Z. Cheng
Physics of Substorm Onset
14:50 ?15:20 Group Photo and Break
Session Chair: Sunny W. Y. Tam
15:20 ?15:40 Lin-Ni Hau
The Physics of Thin Current Sheet and Development of Flux-gate Magnetometer
15:40 ?16:00 K. Stasiewicz
Acceleration of Particles in Space Plasmas by Nonlinear MHD Waves
16:00 ?16:20 Tiger J. Y. Liu
Highlights of Ionospheric Physics from FORMOSAT-3/ COSMIC
16:20 ?16:40 K.-I. Oyama
New Perspective of Ionosphere Research - Lithosphere Atmosphere Ionosphere Coupling
16:40 ?17:10 Lin I
How Particles Move Microscopically in Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Wave
17:10 ?18:10 Poster Session
18:20 Bus Departure for Conference Banquet

Session Chair: Mitsuru Kikuchi
09:00 ?09:30 N. C. Luhmann, Jr.
Microwave Imaging and Visualization Diagnostics Developments for the Study of MHD and Microturbulence
09:30 ?10:00 Yasushi Ono
Transient Magnetic Reconnection in TS-4 Merging Experiment
10:00 ?10:20 Yasushi Nishida
Historical Review on the Plasma Based Particle Accelerators
10:20 ?10:40 Break
Session Chair: N. C. Luhmann, Jr.
10:40 ?11:10 T. H. Chang
Development of Frequency-tunable Terahertz Radiation Sources
11:10 ?11:30 Jyhpyng Wang
High-field Physics at IAMS-Academia Sinica
11:30 ?11:50 K. R. Chen
Relativistic Ion Cyclotron Modes Driven by Energetic Alpha Particles in Nonuniform Magnetic Field
11:50 Lunch
12:30 Bus Departure for Tour of Tainan Historic Sites

List of Posters
[P01] Analytic Study on Localized Wave Modes Driven by Relativistic Ion Cyclotron in Nonuniform Magnetic Field
T. H. Tsai*, K. R. Chen, L. Chen
[P02] A Revisit to Lawson Criterion
Max Chung*, Hung-Yi Lin, Jen-Hui Tsai, Chin-Chen Chu
[P03] Shear Alfven Wave Dynamics in Gyrokinetic Tokamak Plasmas
Yasutaro Nishimura
[P04] Fast ion Physics in Tokamak Plasmas
C. Z. Cheng*, N. N. Gorelenkov, G. J. Kramer, M. Ishikawa, M. Takechi, K. Shinohara, Y. Kusama
[P05] Interferometry Development for Magnetized Plasma Device at PSSC
C. T. Fan*, F. Y. Xiao, C. Z. Cheng
[P06] Magnetized Plasma Experiments Using Plasma Emitter
Eiichirou Kawamori*, C. Z. Cheng, Nobuko Fujikawa, Jyun-Yi Lee, Yong-yuan Liao, Stephanie Chung, Wun-Jheng Syugu, Hui-kuan Fang, Albert Peng
[P07] Development of Langmuir Probe System for Turbulence Study in Magnetized Plasma
J. Y. Lee*, E. Kawamori, C. Z. Cheng
[P08] Ion Beam System for Space Instrument Test and Calibration 1
N. Fujikawa*, K. M. Peng, D. Hung, E. Kawamori, A. B. Chen, C. Z. Chneg, M. Hirahara
[P09] Ion Beam System for Space Instrument Test and Calibration 2
K.M. Peng*, N. Fujikawa, E. Kawamori, W. T.Liu, S. M. Huang, C. Z. Cheng
[P10] ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Observations of Azimuthal Structure of Breakup Arcs
T. F. Chang*, C. Z. Cheng, C. Y. Chiang, Sunny W. Y. Tam, Alfred B. Chen, R. R. Hsu, H. T. Su
[P11] ISUAL Side-way Observation of the OI(1D) Night Airglows
Chih-Yu Chiang*, Tzu-Fang Chang, Chien-Hung Lin, P. K. Rajesh, Jann-Yenq Liu, Alfred Bing-Chih Chen, Han-Tzong Su, Rue-Ron Hsu

[P12] Concurrent Observations of the 630.0 nm Ionospheric Airglow and the Electron Density
K. W. Liu*, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chiang, T. F. Chang, C. Z. Cheng, A. B. Chen, R. R. Hsu, H. T. Su
[P13] Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by FORMOSAT-2 Airglow and GPS-TEC
Yi-Shiuang Wu*, Chih-Yu Chiang, Chia-Hung Chen, Chien-Hung Lin, Rue-Ron Hsu
[P14] Probing the Ionosphere by the Global Navigation Satellite System and the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Constellation
Charles C. H. Lin*, J. Y. Tiger Liu, C. H. Chen, H. F. Tsai
[P15] Influence of Geomagnetic Activities on the Ionospheric Electrons: Statistical Study Based on FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Observations
Sunny W. Y. Tam*, Kaiti Wang, Chien-Han Chen
[P16] Calculation of Substorm Particle Injection Including Relativistic Effect
W. C. Lin*, C. Z. Cheng
[P17] Source Mechanism of Low-Latitude ELF-Whistlers Observed in Taiwan
Kaiti Wang*, Yun-Ching Wang, Han-Tzong Su, Ruei-Ron Hsu, Tzu-Yuan Lin
[P18] Magnetospheric Equilibrium with Toroidal Rotation
Marty Chou*, C. Z. (Frank) Cheng
[P19] Magnetic Reconnection Rate in Large Solar Flares
Ya-Hui Yang*, C. Z. Cheng
[P20] How the Radial Velocity in and around of the Local Super Cluster Depend in the Spatial Orientations of Galaxies?
B. Aryal, P. R. Kafle*, W. Saurer
* Corresponding author

2. Abstracts/論文摘要

Day 1: Thursday, 11/6
13:30 ?14:00

The International Living With a Star (ILWS) Program: Basic Space Science with a High Public Purpose
Daniel N. Baker
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303-7814, USA
Abstract
Activity on the Sun such as solar flares and other eruptive processes can lead to high levels of radiation in space and can cause major magnetic storms at the Earth. Space radiation can come as energetic particles and also as intense electromagnetic radiation. Resulting adverse conditions in the near-Earth space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids. This can lead to a variety of socioeconomic losses. Astronauts and airline passengers exposed to high levels of radiation are also at risk. The modern world抯 vulnerability to space weather effects is an issue of increasing concern. We are dependent on technological systems that are becoming ever more susceptible to space weather disturbances. This will make space weather of even greater concern in the future. In order to study the coupled Sun-Earth system, the relevant agencies of the major space-faring nations of the world have formed the International Living With a Star Program (ILWS). In this presentation, we will describe many space weather effects and will describe some of the roles of science missions in observing, predicting, and possibly mitigating space weather. We will also describe the approach to using our basic physical understanding to advance the public welfare through improved space weather predictions and forecasts.


Day 1: 14:00 ?14:30

Space Plasma Missions of ISAS, JAXA for the Next 20 Years
Masaki Fujimoto
Institute of Space and Astronautical Science / Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS, JAXA), Japan
E-mail: fujimoto@stp.isas.jaxa.jp; Tel: +81 (42)759-8633
Abstract
In the minds of the Japanese space plasma scientists, there will be four missions to be led by ISAS, JAXA, in the next 20 year time span. They are (1) ERG: A small spacecraft mission to the inner-magnetosphere. It has been proposed to ISAS this September. To be launched in 2013, decided according to the next solar-max period and with the collaboration with RBSP, ORBITALS and THEMIS in mind. (2) BepiColombo MMO: Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. To be launched in 2014 as one of the two elements of ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. ESA is in charge of the launch, delivery to the Mercury orbit, and MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter). MMO is a spinner that will perform unprecedented plasma measurements in the curious parameter space in the solar system. (3) SCOPE/Cross-Scale consortium: The full-international constellation mission to perform simultaneous multi-scale measurements of fundamental space plasma processes in the natural laboratory of the earth抯 magnetosphere. The target physical processes are shocks, magnetic reconnection, and plasma turbulence. The JAXA-led SCOPE spacecraft will perform high time-resolution electron measurements necessary for resolving the electron scale physics. SCOPE has been proposed to ISAS this September, and to be launched in ~2017. (4) EJSM JMO: Jovian Magnetospheric Orbiter in the Europa Jupiter-System Mission. ESA, NASA, and JAXA are studying a mission to study how the Jupiter system emerged, how the Jupiter system work now, and, if Europa hosts a habitable world. JMO is one of the four elements under study. It is a spinning spacecraft providing the best platform for the in-situ measurements of plasma in the most attractive environment of the solar system. A scenario that will combine and maximize the scientific outputs from these missions will be discussed.

 


 

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Day 1: 14:30 ?15:00

Present and Future Research Directions and Space Missions for the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley
Robert P. Lin
Space Science Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, USA
Abstract
Solar and space plasma physics are major research areas at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). At present, three PI-led missions developed by SSL are being operated by SSL抯 ground station and MOC/SOC: the five-spacecraft THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Middle-class Explorer, the RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) and the FAST (Fast Auroral SnapshoT) Small Explorers. Also, SSL instruments or detectors are currently operating on the Wind, SoHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), and two- spacecraft STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) missions in orbit around the Sun; plus the Geotail and four-spacecraft Cluster missions in Earth orbit. SSL is also involved in the gamma-ray burst instrument on Ulysses, the EUV astronomy instruments on GALEX (GALaxy Evolution small eXplorer), and ISUAL instrument on the Taiwanese ROCSAT 2 for study of transient luminous events associated with lightning.
Presently under development at SSL are detectors for HST COS (Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph), electric field instruments for the two-spacecraft RBSP (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) mission, focal plane instrumentation for the NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array) Small Explorer mission, and multiple instruments for the recently selected MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatiles Evolution) Mars Scout mission. SSL researchers are also developing the balloon-borne NCT (Nuclear Compton Telescope) for gamma-ray astrophysics (with Taiwan participation), the rocket-borne FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Spectrometer-Imager) for solar hard X-ray measurements, and the balloon- borne GRIPS (Gamma-Ray Imager Polarimeter for Solar flares) instrument, as well as participating in the BARREL (Balloon ARray for Relativistic Electron Loss) multiple balloon mission, and in SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Far Infrared Astronomy).
The NICE (Neutral Ion Coupling Explorer) Small Explorer and the SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) missions are currently under study at SSL. Future research directions include development of nanosatellites, solar/astrophysical high energy missions, and missions going to the Moon and close to the Sun.



Day 1: 15:00 ?15:30

An Overview of Space Program in Taiwan
Jiun-Jih Miau
National Space Organization, Taiwan, ROC
Abstract
National Space Organization (NSPO), since its establishment in 1991, has been carrying a mission to promote space science and technology in the country to fulfill the national needs. With the funding support from the government, NSPO has successfully executed three major satellite programs, namely, FORMOSAT-1, 2 and 3, and five sounding rocket test programs. FORMOSAT-1, a scientific program on-board with an ocean color image instrument and an ionosphere measurement instrument, was launched in 1999 and decommissioned in 2004. FORMOSAT-2, a primary remote sensing program for agriculture /forestry/land use, natural disaster assessment, as well as environmental monitoring, was launched in 2004 and is currently performing well in orbit. FORMOSAT-3, a weather satellite program in deployed six-satellite constellation, was launched in 2006 and is currently collecting large amount of radio occultation data that has shown significant impacts to atmospheric weather prediction system, climate study, and space weather observation.
Currently, three major programs are being carried out in NSPO. Firstly, FORMOSAT-5, a low-earth orbit remote sensing satellite with a high resolution optical imager, is being designed and scheduled to be launched in 2011. Secondly, FORMOSAT-6, a 100 kg class microsatellite, will be launched in 2012, whose mission has been derived from the requirements of disaster management in Taiwan. Thirdly, the sounding rocket program based on the previous experiences continues to provide alternate opportunities for a quick access to the sub-orbit environment for conducting space science research and instrument development.
NSPO would like to share its experiences and invite the international collaborative opportunities and/or partners for space programs.

Day 1: 16:00 ?16:30

KSTAR Construction, Commissioning and its Implication to the ITER Project
G. S. Lee, M. Kwon*, and J. S. Bak
National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
* Corresponding author
Abstract
KSTAR, the first Nb3Sn technology-based fully superconducting tokamak device, has come a long way with all critical aspects resolved, and now successfully tested, commissioned and achieved 揻irst plasma?operation exceeding initial target parameters. The commissioning process of KSTAR has been progressed from April to July 2008, through following four steps: vacuum, cryogenic cool-down, superconducting magnet test, and plasma start-up. The first two major steps, namely vacuum and cryogenic cool-down commissioning, have been successfully passed with vacuum pressure less than 3.0x10-8 mbar, and reached all superconducting magnet temperature under 4.5 Kelvin without 揾elium cold leak? at the first trial of all processes. Then, plasma start-up experiments were conducted using integrated 損lasma control system(PCS)?for fast current and position control. The 揻irst plasma?discharge was initiated under time synchronized operation of the power supplies, ECH pre-ionization system, gas-puffing system and initial set of diagnostics systems. After successive test discharge sequences, successively controlled plasma with flat-top current of 133 kA, duration up to 800 msec has been obtained. All plasma sequences are proven to be reproducible by re-loading of PCS date-base. In this campaign, the low voltage plasma start-up experiments utilizing 84 GHz Gyrotron system for the second harmonic ECH had been investigated, and yielded results confirming low loop-voltage about 2 volts for successful plasma start-up as well as current build-up. These results confirms that one of the important technical risks associated with superconducting PF systems have been resolved, and convincingly proved selection criteria of ECH frequency of pre-ionization as well as main electron heating systems. Subsequently, the machine performance test including 揳c-loss?of Nb3Sn PF Systems has been conducted and then full superconducting magnet system 搘arm-up?process has been completed without anomaly. The complementary power supplies, diagnostics, heating systems as well as in-vessel components need to be installed in series during a couple of years, so that the full performance experiments for 揳dvanced tokamak physics?with 300 sec long-pulse could be exploited within year 2012. Especially, specially designed in-vessel coil systems would allow physics study of high-beta plasma with resistive wall mode control, and edge localized mode control, so that the extension of operation envelop of strongly shaped tokamak plasma would be achieved. This talk will cover KSTAR construction and commissioning experience that is relevant to ITER Project construction phase. Also, the KSTAR experimental plan with ITER relevant physics as well as engineering issues will be presented.
----------
Work supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

Day 1: 16:30 ?17:00

Progress of Physics of Steady-state Tokamak towards Fusion Energy Utilization in the Later Half of 21st Century
Mitsuru Kikuchi1,2
1. Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency
2. Visiting Professor, Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Japan
E-mail: kikuchi.mitsuru@jaea.go.jp; Tel: (81)292-7294
Abstract
Today抯 Fusion Research is focused on Tokamak concept as seen in ITER project. But, confining field of Tokamak comes largely from plasma current, which makes it not easy to operate in steady-state due to finite plasma resistance. Certainly, efficient steady-state operation is important element of commercial use of fusion energy. Experimental observation of bootstrap current opened the possibility of steady-state operation of tokamak.
Since the concept of steady-state tokamak (SST) reactor consistent with tokamak physics has been proposed in 1990 [1], lots of scientific researches are made for about 20 years to understand confinement physics and to control plasma relevant for SST. Physics of non-inductive current drive via neutral beam injection, bootstrap current is key element for SST. But, progress of exploration and understanding of confinement physics such as profile resilience due to self-organized criticality, weak positive shear & reversed shear configurations, current hole, internal transport barrier (ITB), edge transport barrier (ETB), neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), double tearing mode (DTM), resistive wall mode (RWM), edge localized mode (ELM), Alfven eigen mode (AE) are outstanding, which are essential to realize SST. I will summarize the achievements to clarify present understanding and remaining issues of physics of SST.
This talk will also address future pathway towards fusion power utilization towards the end of this century based on SST research line, such as role of ITER and accompanying program, DEMO development and how to make meaningful contribution to mitigate global warming via fusion energy.

[1] M. Kikuchi, Steady-state tokamak reactor based on the bootstrap current, Nuclear Fusion 30(1990)265.
[2] M. Kikuchi, Prospect of a Stationary Tokamak Reactor, PPCF 35(1993)39.




Day 1: 17:00 ?17:30

Recent Research Activities at National Institute for Fusion Science Towards Steady-State Fusion Reactor
Shigeru Sudo1,2
1. National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan
2. Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: sudo@nifs.ac.jp; Tel: +81-572-58-2002
Abstract
National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has a role to elucidate, and to systematize the physical mechanism of nuclear fusion plasma confinement. NIFS is an Inter-University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and is operating the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world抯 largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users?facility. The other main research area is large-scale simulation by the use of the super computer. The current status of LHD project will be presented with focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. LHD has an advantage in steady state operation, because of no necessity of plasma current for confinement unlike tokamak. Since LHD抯 start in 1998, remarkable results have been obtained: the proton temperature of 6.8 keV at 2x1019 m-3, the electron temperature of 10 keV at 5x1018 m-3, the highest volume averaged beta of 5 % at B=0.425T in helical plasma devices, the highest density of 1.1x1021 m-3 with an internal density barrier (IDB), and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ with the operation time of 54 min. in all the magnetic confinement fusion devices including tokamaks. We also promote such a large-scale simulation research that fully utilizes the capacity of the super computer with a view to clarify a physical mechanism that underlies many different layers of physics. Thus far, our effort has reached to the level where the experimental result can be interpreted in a limited spatial-temporal hierarchy. We have also made achievements in research to connect such hierarchies that simultaneously deal with the turbulence and the magnetohydrodynamic macro instability. Upon these achievements, we will further intensify the domestic and international collaborative research to accelerate simulation research. For this, the Department of Simulation Science has been established in April, 2007 with consisting of the two simulation research divisions: LHD and Magnetic Field Confinement, Fusion Frontiers, and also Rokkasho Research Center in Aomori prefecture. Besides, the virtual reality taskforce is now being developed. With a view to improve a large-scale simulation environment, we will significantly upgrade the performance of a plasma simulator (supercomputer) in March, 2009. We will further develop a larger-scale simulation research that will lead to the LHD Numerical Test Reactor on the basis of the knowledge and information obtained through these simulation researches and also experimental data. Present role of Rokkasho Research Center is to collaborate with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Broader Approach (BA) from the scientific standpoint. Simultaneously with a view to contribute for the actualization of nuclear fusion energy, we would like to establish a new scientific area of research called "Simulation Science", which is different from experimental or theoretical studies.




Day 1: 17:30 ?18:00

Progress toward Burning Plasmas
James W. Van Dam
Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Abstract
The next frontier for fusion science is the study of burning plasmas. The ITER facility, to be operated as an international project, will push research efforts into this new regime. In this talk, we will first define what is a burning plasma and describe its distinguishing properties. One such feature is dominant self-heating (exothermic) by a large population of alpha particles, created from thermonuclear reactions. Fusion self-heating also leads to strongly nonlinear coupling of critical elements in MHD stability, transport, alpha particle losses, edge behavior, and burn dynamics. Also, burning plasmas require robust plasma-wall facing components and diagnostics that can withstand high heat and neutron wall loadings. Next, we will briefly review how previous experiments on JET and TFTR to attain break-even (Q≤1) have laid the foundation for taking the present step to ITER. Then, we will describe the various physics issues that need to be addressed for burning plasmas, both in preparation for ITER and also when operating at high fusion gain (Q=5-10). In addition to the scientific opportunities, we will also describe how ITER, being operated as a large-scale international project, has provided valuable lessons in terms of organization, mission, cost, and programmatic coordination worldwide.
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Work supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (U.S. Department of Energy) and the U.S. Burning Plasma Organization




Day 2: Friday, 11/7
09:00 ?09:30

Paradigm change in Fusion Science Research and University Fusion Science Research Centers in Korea
Hyeon K. Park
Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Republic of Korea
Abstract
Through intensive fusion science research from the large tokamak devices (JET, TFTR, and JT-60U) which have created the plasma condition for the optimum fusion reaction (~20keV; optimum cross-section for DT), the ITER project is well justified. However, a long time scale sustainment of such high beta plasmas is still a challenging physics and engineering problems to be resolved in the future. For the larger devices like ITER, the primary physics issue is the stability in addition to current drive issue. Control of the harmful MHD mode with an efficient current drive system at high beta plasma is critical issue for the steady state operation. Reliable control mechanisms are only possible from a full understanding of the physical mechanism of the explosive growth of those harmful MHDs which can often lead to the catastrophic disruption. Physics modeling of the MHDs in the hot plasma has been advanced significantly based on world-wide fusion science research but not conclusive yet to develop a precise remedy for the harmful instabilities for the ITER. This is largely due to the underestimated complexity of the phenomena which require much more sophisticated multi-dimensional diagnostic system to map out precisely the nature of the problem. New approach of the physics study is essential so that the transient high beta plasmas achieved in previous generation tokamak can be extended to the steady state operation in the new superconducting tokamak devices such as KSTAR, EAST, SST and NCT in Asia. Successful test of the new physics on these devices will increase the chance of the success of the ITER project which will lead to the Demo construction. In order to timely contribute to the ITER program and accelerate the Korean fusion science program on KSTAR, currently we are developing University based fusion science centers in conjunction with the KSTAR team and other fusion research related institutes in Korea. At POSTECH, the main effort will be on the core physics study with the advanced diagnostic systems as well as developing an optimum current drive system coupled with the edge plasma profile control for efficient coupling while other Universities are focusing on other critical topics.




Day 2: 09:30 ?10:00

Advancements of Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
Atsushi Mase
Art, Science and Technology for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580, Japan
Abstract
Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In magnetically confined plasmas, since various specific frequencies such as the cutoffs and resonances in plasmas determined by confining magnetic fields and electron densities are in the range of 30-300 GHz, the optimum probing wavelengths are in the range of microwave to millimeter-wave.
The diagnostic techniques are interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The parameters obtained by these diagnostic techniques are the eqilibrium and fluctuation components of electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and magnetic field. Those parameters were measured to clarify the physics issues such as stability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport.
Recent advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technology together with computer technology have enabled the development of new generation of diagnostics for visualization of 2D and 3D structures of plasmas. Microwave/Millimeter-wave imaging is expected to be one of the promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. We present here on the recent progress in microwave/millimeter-wave diagnostics and physics results obtained in magnetically confined plasmas.




Day 2: 10:00 ?10:30

Advances & Challenges in Computational Plasma Science
William Tang1,2
1. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton University, USA
2. Princeton Institute for Computational Science and Engineering, Princeton University, USA
Abstract
Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research during the 21st Century. For example, the U. S. Department of Energy's "Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing" (SciDAC) Program was motivated in large measure by the fact that formidable scientific challenges in its research portfolio could best be addressed by utilizing the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing technology together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies. The imperative is to translate such progress into corresponding increases in the physics fidelity and the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems, including those encountered in high temperature plasma research. If properly validated against experimental measurements and analytic benchmarks, these codes can provide reliable predictive capability for the behavior of a broad range of complex natural and engineered systems. This talk reviews recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations with some illustrative examples taken from the fusion energy science application area. Significant progress in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics in magnetically-confined plasmas have been enabled by the combination of access to powerful supercomputing resources together with innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning a huge range in time and space scales. In particular, the plasma science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPP's to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of plasma turbulence in fusion-grade high temperature plasmas. These calculations, which typically utilize billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP platforms together with modern diagnostic and visualization capabilities to help interpret the results. In general, new insights gained from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics understanding of plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to stimulate improved cross-cutting collaborations with other fields and also to help attract bright young talent to the rapidly growing area of interdisciplinary computational science.




Day 2: 10:50 ?11:10

Importance of Neoclassical Transport Theory to Tokamak Confinement
K. C. Shaing1,2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan
Abstract
Tokamak plasmas are plagued with turbulent fluctuations. However, even in these highly turbulent plasmas, neoclassical theory, which assumes plasmas are quiescent, still plays an important role in understanding tokamak confinement physics. The relevance of the neoclassical theory is anchored on at least two physics reasons. One is that turbulent fluctuations in tokamaks are centered on the rational surfaces and have practically vanishing wave vector in the direction of the magnetic field. Turbulent fluctuations have, thus, little effects on the flux surface averaged momentum balance equation in the direction of the magnetic field. Any physics quantities that are the consequences of that equation are not affected significantly by the turbulent fluctuations. The other is that the magnitude of the equilibrium magnetic field has a variation in the poloidal direction of the order of , which is either much larger than or at lest equal to the amplitudes of the turbulent fluctuations. Here,  is the inverse aspect ratio of tokamaks. Thus, the ion part of the neoclassical theory is relevant to the confinement physics in tokamaks, especially the viscous component in the direction of the magnetic field. When poloidal E×B drift speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, the viscous force becomes nonlinear and decreases as poloidal E×B drift speed becomes supersonic. This nonlinear dependence of the viscous force has been observed in experiments and is related to the transition from the low confinement mode to the high confinement mode when it is coupled to the turbulence suppression theory. These and other related issues will be discussed.




Day 2: 11:10 ?11:30

Multi-scale Simulation Research in Fusion Plasmas
M. Yagi1,*, S. Tokunaga2, S. Nishimura2, S. Sugita2, S.-I. Itoh1, K. Itoh3
1. Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Japan
2. Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan
3. National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: yagi@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tel: +81-92-583-7766
Abstract
The multi-scale interaction between MHD, turbulence and transport is a hot topic in simulation research of Tokamak plasmas1. A typical example is the interaction between the microscopic turbulence such as ion temperature gradient driven drift waves(ITG) and the zonal flows2. The other key issue is the intermittent events like blobs in edge turbulence3. We will report the recent achievement in the simulation study of multi-scale interaction between MHD, turbulence and transport.
For the first topic, will we discuss the formation and collapse of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) in Tokamaks4. The meso-scale structures are generated by three-wave interaction among drift wave turbulence, then these structures interact each other, which generate the global mode around barrier location. This leads to the soft collapse of ITB. For the second topic, we will discuss multi-scale interaction between tearing mode and drift wave turbulence. The growth of tearing mode is accelerated by incoherent emission of drift wave turbulence5. The possibility of sub-critical excitation and nonlinear sustainment of the magnetic island by electromagnetic turbulence will be investigated. Finally, we will discuss interaction between coherent structures such as blobs and Scrape Off Layer (SOL) interchange turbulence. Intermittent transport in SOL plasma is discussed6.

References
1. M. Yagi et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 48 No.1-3 (2008) 13.
2. P. H. Diamond et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47 (2005) R35.
3. S. Krasheninnikov, Phys. Lett. A 238 (2001) 368.
4. S. Tokunaga et al., J. Phys. Conf. Series 123 (2008) 012030.
5. M. Yagi et al., Nucl. Fusion 45 (2005) 900; Plasma and Fusion Res. 2 (2007) 025.
6. S. Sugita et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 3 (2008) 040.
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This work is partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Specially-Promoted Research (16002005), by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (19360415), by the collaboration programmes of NIFS (NIFS06KDAD005, NIFS08KTAL012, NIFS07KNXN089) and RIAM Kyushu University.




Day 2: 11:30 ?11:50

The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) Project
Hsiang-Kuang Chang*, for the NCT collaboration
Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: hkchang@phys.nthu.edu.tw; Tel: +886-3-574-2952
Abstract
The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma-ray emission with high spectral resolution, moderate angular resolution, and novel sensitivity to gamma-ray polarization. The heart of NCT is an array of cross-strip germanium detectors, each of 15-mm thickness and 5400 mm2 active area, with full 3D position resolution better than 2 mm3. NCT will perform Compton imaging in the 0.2-10 MeV gamma-ray band. We are currently planning a 12-detector conventional balloon flight of the NCT instrument from Fort Sumner, NM, in May 2009 and two long duration balloon flights in 2010 and 2012. NCT can also carry out imaging in the 20-100 keV X-ray band if a coded mask is added. This paper describes the scientific goals, as well as the detector design, simulated performance and current status of the project. NCT is a join effort of several institutions in the US and in Taiwan.




Day 2: 11:50 ?12:10

Millimeter-wave Imaging in Astronomy
Ming-Tang Chen
Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics
E-mail: mchen@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw; Tel: +886-2-3365-2200 ext. 710
Abstract
The advance in technology is unveiling the mysteries in astronomy in the previously unexplored wavelength in millimeter/sub-mm region (inclusively referred to as 搈m?region). Starting from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to the Atacama Large MM/Sub-mm Array (ALMA), the imaging technology via mm interferometry has taken up the starring roles in the mainstream astronomy. Dedicated in 2003, the SMA is the first interferometer exploring the sub-mm Universe in the highest angular resolution. It is quickly followed by the ALMA project, which is the largest ground-based telescope under construction. At present, most of the detectable energy falls into the mm spectra. These newly built observatories will tell most of the Universe history that we still do not know.
Detectors with quantum-noise-limited performance, solid-state devices with excellent capability in handling information in multi-octave bandwidth, and the ever-speedy digital circuitries are some of the key technologies that make the instrumentation in these wavelengths possible. Through participating in the construction of these major observatories, the instrumentation team in our Institute has grown up from the development of these key technologies. Our goal is to research and develop innovative imaging techniques in the mm wavelength for astronomy and other applications, such as plasma diagnostic, remote sensing, and bio-imaging. This talk will review our instrumentation effort in the past decade. It is also in hope to provide the Plasma and Space Science Center a positive experience in hardware development from a virtual vacuum to a world-competitive organization.

Day 2: 13:10 ?13:40

Low-Energy Plasma in Near-Earth Space: High-Resolution In-Situ Studies
Andrew W. Yau
University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy
Abstract
In-situ observations of low (thermal) energy plasma on orbiting satellites and sounding rocket payloads provide a powerful technique for studying a variety of plasma and related processes in the Earth抯 ionosphere, plasmasphere and magnetosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. Many of these processes are simply not accessible to remote-sensing observation techniques, while others are accessible only at much more limited spatial resolution. Recent advances in particle imagery techniques, including those combining micro-channel plates (MCP) and charge-coupled devices (CCD), have made it possible to perform in-situ, 搃maging?measurements of detailed plasma velocity phase space distributions down to the temporal scale of the order of 10 ms, and corresponding spatial scale of <100 m on satellites and <10 m on sounding rockets. This opens the exciting possibility of studying plasma acceleration dynamics on ion gyro-radius or electron inertial scales ?in the auroral ionosphere for example. We discuss the state of the art in in-situ low-energy plasma observations, with a focus on planned studies on the Canadian Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite and key scientific questions these observations will address.




Day 2: 13:40 ?14:10

Plasma/Particle Instruments and Japan-Taiwan Collaboration for the Geospace Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Explorations
Masafumi Hirahara
Space and Planetary Science Group, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan
E-mail: hirahara@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tel: +81 3 5841 4582
Abstract
The space physics, particularly for the exploration in the near-Earth magnetosphere (so-called Geospace), essentially requires in situ plasma/particle measurements covering a wide energy range from a few eV up to several tens of MeV as well as the magnetic/electric and plasma wave measurements. The extremely energetic (several hundreds of keV to tens of MeV) particles widely distributing in Geospace are accelerated in the radiation belt (Van Allen belt) and drastically change their characteristic energy, flux, and location according to solar-terrestrial interaction effects. Some recent theoretical/simulation works indicate that plasma wave-particle interaction would play a crucial role in the generation of radiation belt electrons also called killer electrons. The radiation belt is surrounded by or coexists with both ring current region consisting of high-energy (about 10 to several hundreds of keV) ions and electrons and plasma sheet characterized by its hot (a few hundreds of eV to tens of keV) plasma population. This multi-sphere space system has conspicuous energy-layered structures/distributions, which fundamentally drives typical plasma processes in the Geospace, like the auroral emissions in the polar ionosphere, the particle accelerations, the plasma wave excitation, and so on.
Our Japanese team is now making aggressive efforts toward realizing the comprehensive measurements of space plasma over the wide energy range of ten to the sixth order using a plasma/particle instruments package consisting of several types of sensor. As a feature in these instrumental activities, it should be addressed that the international collaborations, for instance with the Taiwan's team, bring more fruitful achievements. The first case is the development of a low-energy electron sensor applied to the Taiwan's space mission, FORMOSAT-5. Our micro-satellite, Reimei, has already been successful in the auroral electron observations with a high-time (20 msec) resolution and a full pitch angle coverage, which establishes a significant basis also for the science subjects of FORMOSAT-5. Next opportunity is the cooperative development toward the Japanese Geospace exploration mission in the coming period of the maximum solar activity around 2012-2013.
In this talk, I present our scientific objectives, required instrumentations, and collaborative plans deployed in the exploration missions of the solar-terrestrial physics.




Day 2: 14:10 ?14:30

Science Results of the Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on FORMOSAT-2
Alfred Bing-Chih Chen1,2,*, Cheng-Ling Kuo4, Han-Tzong Su3, Rue-Ron Hsu3, Jyh-Long Chern5, Harald U. Frey6, Stephen B. Mende6, Yukihiro Takahashi7, and Lou-Chuang Lee4
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan
2. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan
3. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan
4. Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 32001, Taiwan
5. Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan
6. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
7. Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: alfred@phys.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-937099755
Abstract
The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on FORMOSAT-2 is the first dedicated instrument for the observation of Transient Luminous Events (TLE) like sprites and elves from space. Since its launch in May 2004 it has been providing a good wealth of images and photometric data to study TLE and lightning. The long term observations provided the first view of the global distribution and relative importance of sprites, elves, halos, and gigantic jets. ISUAL provided proof that elves are the most important TLE with a strong occurrence maximum over oceans. Spectrographic recordings of the N2-1P emission in elves was also proof of the occurrence of local ionization that has implication for the modification of ionospheric electron density and chemistry. ISUAL also provided proof for the uneven local distribution of the different TLE classes that is most likely related to the attachment process of the cloud-to-ground discharge to either water or land on the ground. The availability of photometric recordings in different spectral regions and especially the absorption-free far-ultraviolet channel allowed the determination of the electric field and electron energies in sprites. It also allowed the comparison between emissions in elves and sprites expected from models and those actually measured from space.




Day 2: 14:30 ?14:50

Physics of Substorm Onset
C. Z. Cheng1,*, T. F. Chang1, Sorin Zaharia2, N. Gorelenkov3
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, MN, USA
3. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, NJ, USA
* Corresponding author
Abstract
The Earth抯 magnetosphere and ionosphere during substorms evolve typically from the growth phase to substorm onset to the expansion phase and then to quiet time states. During different phases of substorms the magnetosphere and ionosphere exhibit distinct 3D global and local features. Successful theories or models for understanding substorm dynamics must provide physical understanding of observation features. In particular, using high time-resolution optical imagers the fine structure and dynamics of substorm breakup arcs have been observed from the late growth phase to substorm onset and to the expansion phase. The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) aboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite provides 1 sec exposure in narrow band-width of optical images and the ground-based THEMIS All Sky Imagers provide 3 sec exposure in black-white images. These optical imagers have observed fine structure of breakup arcs with the separation distance between successive bright spots to be about 100 km, which is equivalent to azimuthal mode number of ~200. We compute 3D global quasi-static magnetospheric equilibria to understand the structure of growth phase magnetosphere. The ULF (in the Pi 2 frequency range) instability responsible for the auroral arc and its breakup after the substorm onset is modeled by the Kinetic Ballooning Instability (KBI), which is destabilized by plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature in the high beta magnetic well region in the near-Earth plasma sheet.




Day 2: 15:20 ?15:40

The Physics of Thin Current Sheet and Development of Flux-gate Magnetometer
Lin-Ni Hau
Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Taiwan
Abstract
The physics of thin current sheets which separate different plasma regions is one of the most important issues of plasma physics for both laboratory and space/astrophysical plasmas. In this talk a brief overview is given of the new development on equilibrium and dynamics of Harris type current sheet with applications to collisionless space plasma. Both theoretical and observational aspects of the physics associated with thin current sheet are addressed and the challenge of attempting to make the magnetic field observed in space plasma 搗isible?is highlighted. An effort of developing a high-resolution flux-gate magnetometer for measuring the magnetic field in space plasmas conducted at SPDL (Satellite Payload Development Lab, NCU) is briefly addressed.




Day 2: 15:40 ?16:00

Acceleration of Particles in Space Plasmas by Nonlinear MHD Waves
K. Stasiewicz1,2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
Abstract
An unresolved question of magnetospheric physics concerns creation of convergent and divergent electric field structures responsible for acceleration of auroral particles to several keV. Similarly, an unresolved problem of solar physics concerns acceleration of particles producing the x-ray coronal emissions. Here we show that both these problems can be explained by electric field structures produced by nonlinear solitary waves called alfvenons. The convergent electric field structures correspond to fast alfvenons, while divergent electric field structures are produced by slow alfvenons. Both types of solitons can create potentials of tens of kV in the magnetosphere and hundreds of kV in the solar corona. Such solitons can be created when magnetosonic and Alfvén waves propagate through regions of varying Alfvén speed and plasma beta, which occurs on auroral field lines at and also above the chromosphere in the solar corona. The initial waves can be produced by bursty bulk flows in the Earth's magnetotail and by chromospheric/photospheric convective flows on the Sun. Alfvenons with large potentials can be created by fast flows associated with reconnection in the magnetotail and in solar flares.




Day 2: 16:00 ?16:20

Highlights of Ionospheric Physics from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
Tiger J.Y. Liu1,2,*, Charles C. H. Lin3
1. Institute of Space science, National Central University, Taiwan
2. Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, Taiwan
3. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: jyliu@jupiter.ss.ncu.edu.tw; Tel: +886-3-4227151 ext. 65763
Abstract
The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) constellation lunched on 15 April 2007, which consists of six micro-satellites in the low-Earth orbit, is capable of monitoring the global ionospheric electron density. In this paper, we present new findings of ionospheric physics observed by using F3/C GPS occultation experiment (GOX) and tiny ionosphere photometer (TIP). The GOX with more than 2500 observations per day provides an excellent opportunity to monitor the three-dimensional ionospheric structures and associated dynamics while the TIP probes a very high resolution in the horizontal gradient of ionospheric electron density by means of 135.6 nm airglow emissions. For the study of ionospheric physics, we discuss the competing processes among the photo ionization, equatorial plasma fountain and the trans-equatorial neutral wind effects by inspecting the diurnal variations of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) crests in meridional sectors. Meanwhile, new equatorial ionosphere feature, plasma caves and depletion bay, are observed underneath the two equatorial anomaly crests and around the geomagnetic equator, respectively. The plasma caves are well-developed during the daytime when the equatorial plasma fountain becomes prominent, while the depletion bay simply appears in nighttime. The spatial and temporal variations and related physics of the plasma caves and depletion bay are proposed and discussed.




Day 2: 16:20 ?16:40

New Perspective of Ionosphere Research - Lithosphere Atmosphere Ionosphere Coupling
K.-I. Oyama*, J. Y. Liu
National Central University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: oyama@jupiter.ss.ncu.edu.tw
Abstract
The possible precursor effects of the earthquake (EQ) on the ionosphere have been reported by many scientists [Pulinets and Boyarchuk, 2004]. Reduction of ionosphere total electron content (TEC) produced prior to earthquake occurrence has been reported by Liu et al. [2004]. Depueva et al. [2007] studied a strong earthquake which occurred near magnetic equator on 15 th August, 1963 with magnitude M=7.75 by using Alouette-1 satellite as well as ionosonde data. They found the reduction of F region density before and after the earthquake more clearly in satellite data. At the same time they stressed that the average effect on foF2 was very small and was observed only in the daytime.
In addition to the earthquake effects on low latitude ionosphere, there are several reports, which study the middle latitude ionosphere foF2 and f bEs [Silina et al., 2001; Ondoh, 2000]. Recently Pulinets et al. [2007] conducted an intensive analysis on Irpinia earthquake which occurred on 23 November 1980, and concluded that air lionization by radon which was emanated during the earthquake preparation could explain all atmospheric and ionosphere parameters.
Most of the scientists are suspicious about the effects [Rishbeth, 2007]. We believe from ground-based as well as satellite data that the effect of earthquake on the ionosphere does exist. It is noted however that all earthquakes do not show the precursor effects. Earthquakes which occurred in the ocean and in the deep ground did not indicate the symptom. Electric field associated seems to be playing important role. However the question is how and where the electric field is produced. It seems the electric field which is produced in the ground cannot penetrate into atmosphere. There might be one more step between solid earth and ionosphere. Latent heat flux related to Radon emanation might be one of the possibilities. The latent heat flux generates the waves and the waves which propagate to the E region ionosphere, where E region dynamo is modified by the waves, and the electric filed thus generated in the E region can propagate to the upper ionosphere.
Although the number of the scientists who are currently doing research is not large, the new era of ionosphere research is blooming regarding lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, after nearly 80 years history of ionosphere study.
The paper introduces our recent satellite data analysis, and possible mechanism to explain our findings. We propose that countries who are suffering from earthquake disasters share the constellation of micro/mini satellites to get morphology of earthquake effects on the ionosphere and prepare for the further study.




Day 2: 16:40 ?17:10

How Particles Move Microscopically in Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Wave
Lin I*, Chen-Yu Tsai, Lee-Wen Teng, and Chen-Ting Liao
Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan, 32001
* Corresponding author. E-mail: lini@ncu.edu.tw Tel: +886-3-4254649
Abstract
How particles move microscopically in the acoustic wave is a fundamental nonlinear many body problem. The wave field affects the particle motion which in turn affects the spatio-temporal evolution of the waveform. The effect of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity at the discrete level should also be considered. The dusty plasma is composed of charged micro-meter sized dust particles in the gaseous plasma background. The proper spatial and temporal scales of the system make it a good platform to understand the generic behaviors of collective excitations at the microscopic level through the direct optical visualization of dust motions. In the dusty plasma, dust acoustic wave can be self-excited by the ion wind toward the electrode without external drive. In this talk, we report the results of our experimental study on the microscopic dust particle motion and dust-wave interaction in the large amplitude dust acoustic wave. The transition from the limit cycle dust motion to the chaotic oscillation with the increasing wave amplitude, the observation of the crest trap instead of trough trapping, the non-Gaussian anisotropic wave heating, the 3D solitary wake field trailing the dust-free cavity depleted by the ablation from an intense laser pulse, et., are presented and discussed.




Day 3: Saturday, 11/8
09:00 ?09:30

Microwave Imaging and Visualization Diagnostics Developments for the Study of MHD and Microturbulence
N. C. Luhmann, Jr.
Department of Applied Science and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UC Davis, USA
Abstract
Advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have made possible diagnostic applications in a variety of areas including plasma physics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, materials characterization, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. This talk will focus on two new approaches for the study and visualization of density and temperature fluctuations inside the core of high temperature plasmas which have been made possible by these significant advances in millimeter-wave and THz receiver and antenna array technology: electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR).
Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in magnetized plasmas arises from the electron gyro-motion at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency, ce. In a tokamak, ce depends on the major radius R of the device, leading to a 1:1 mapping between ce and R. In plasmas with sufficiently high density and electron temperature Te, the ECE radiation intensity at optically thick harmonics is proportional to the local Te, thus providing a localized measure of Te(R) and its fluctuations. A proof-of-principle 128-channel Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system installed on the TEXTOR device has produced exciting results in the areas of magnetic reconnection, suppression of magnetic islands by means of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH), and imaging of meso-scale structures. Currently, new systems with simultaneous high-field and low field imaging capability and up 1152 channels per view are under development for ASDEX-U and DIII-D, as well as systems proposed for other fusion devices such as KSTAR and EAST (preliminary optical designs now underway). Another active technique is microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR), which differs from ECEI in that a broad area of the plasma is first illuminated with a millimeter-wave beam. Density fluctuations near the plasma cutoff layer modulate the reflected beam, with reflective and transmissive optics utilized to image the reflection layer onto a similar planar mixer array. This has the effect of spatially resolving the density fluctuations on the extended plasma cutoff surface; the use of multiple frequency illumination results in the formation of 2-D density fluctuation images.
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Work supported in part by U.S. Dept. of Energy Grants DE-FG02-99ER54531 and DE-AC02-76CHO307
Work performed in collaboration with I.G.J. Classen, C.W. Domier, A.J.H. Donné, R. Jaspers, X. Kong, T. Liang, A. Mase, T. Munsat, H.K. Park, Z. Shen, B.J. Tobias, M.J. van de Pol





Day 3: 09:30 ?10:00

Transient Magnetic Reconnection in TS-4 Merging Experiment
Yasushi Ono1,*, Yukinori Hayashi1, Michiaki Innomoto1, and C. Z. Frank Chen2
1. Department of Advanced Energy, The Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: ono@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tel: +81-3-5841-6686
Abstract
The laboratory merging/ reconnection experiment and numerical simulation agreed that deformation and ejection of current sheet is the major driving force for fast magnetic reconnection. Both of pull and push motions of two merging tokamak plasmas was used to study effect of the wide range of reconnection inflow speed on the reconnection dynamics. Under the low plasma inflow condition, the inflow flux was balanced with the outflow flux around a steady-state current sheet, in agreement with the Sweet-Parker model. However, the large inflow flux and low current-sheet dissipation resulted in the flux pileup followed by the rapid growth of the current sheet. When the flux pileup exceeded a critical limit, the current sheet (or plasmoid) was ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed was slow during the flux pileup and was fast during the ejection, indicating intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare reconnection. Another new finding was that the maximum reconnection speed was obtained when the acceleration of the sheet or plasamoid was maximized. Unlike the conventional steady-sate magnetic reconnection, the dynamic growth / ejection of current sheet was concluded to be a key to solve the most of fast reconnection in the solar coronas.




Day 3: 10:00 ?10:20

Historical Review on the Plasma Based Particle Accelerators
Yasushi Nishida1,2
1. Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
2. Utsunomiya University, Japan
Abstract
Plasma based high energy particle accelerators are one of most prominent recent subjects in the plasma physics/applications and also high energy particle accelerator fields for future compact, ultra-high energy particle accelerator developments.
The concept on the plasma based accelerator with use of high power laser was first proposed by Tajima & Dawson (1979), but at that era there was no such laser system as applicable to the experiments. In 1983, Nishida et al. have shown the first experimental acceleration phenomena by using high power microwave system; the mechanism of which was later named as VpxB acceleration, because the acceleration mechanisms was different from Tajima抯 idea, and it is much more stable acceleration phenomena. This experimental result was the first experimental confirmation showing the possibilities of plasma based high energy accelerator concept. In 1986, ANL group had shown the 損lasma wake field acceleration (PWA)?phenomena. This mechanism was originally proposed by P. Chen et al (1985), using 2 electron bunches; one bunch is for exciting the plasma wakefield, and the other is a subject of acceleration to high energy by the excited plasma wake field. The KEK and Utsunomiya group succeeded to make 2-order of magnitude higher energy particle acceleration in 1990 with use of PWA system.
In 1993, Kitagawa and Osaka group excited beat-waves by using the 2-laser beam and succeeded to accelerated electrons. This idea was a part of Tajima抯, the beat wave acceleration (BWA) method is complementary way to laser wake field acceleration (LWA) method. The acceleration by laser wake field method was first demonstrated by the KEK, Osaka and Utsunomiya group in 1994. Since then many groups have developed the laser wake field method and in 2007, France group (LOA) succeeded to accelerate particles up to 1 GeV electron bunches with almost monochromatic energy. As a next step, electron bunch with 10 GeV energies is a target. By using PWA method, joint SLAC and UCLA group demonstrated 42 GeV electron acceleration in 2007.

References
1. T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979).
2. Y. Nishida, M.Yoshizumi, and R.Sugihara, 13th An. Anomalous Absorp. Conf. (June, 1983) F7, Banff, Canada, Phys. Lett. 105A, 300 (1984), and Phys. Fluids 28, 1574 (1985).
3. P. Chen, J. M. Dawson, R. W. Huff, and T. Katsouleas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1537 (1985)
4. H.Nakanishi, A.Enomoto, K.Nakajima, A.Ogata, T.Urano, Y.Nishida, S.Ohsawa, T. Oogoe, and H.Kobayashi, Particle Accelerator, 32, pp.203-208, (1990).
5. K. Nakajima, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Mima, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, Phys. Scripta. T52, pp 61-64 (1994).
6. K. Nakajima, H.Nakanishi, T.Kawakubo, A.Ogata, Y.Kitagawa, H.Shiraga, R.Kodama, T. Zhang, K.Suzuki, Y.Kato, Y.Sakawa, T.Shoji, Y.Nishida, N.Yugami, and T.Tajima, 1993 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington D.C. May (1993).
7. K. Nakajima, D. Fisher, T. Kawakubo, H. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, Y. Kato, Y. Kitagawa, R. Kodama, K. Mima, H. Shiraga, K. Suzuki, K. Yamakawa, T. Zhang, Y. Sakawa, T. Shoji, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, M. Downer, and T. Tajima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4428 - 4431 (1995)
8. I. Blumenfeld, C. E. Clayton et al., Nature 445, 741-744 (15 February 2007)

Day 3: 10:40 ?11:10

Development of Frequency-tunable Terahertz Radiation Sources
T. H. Chang (張存續)
Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan
E-mail: thschang@phys.nthu.edu.tw
Abstract
Researches in the terahertz region have drawn much attention in recent years. The low-power and non-coherent radiation sources have created numerous applications, while the research on the high-power and coherent radiations is still slow-paced because of the severe lack of radiation sources as well as devices. The gyrotrons are ideal sources, based on the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. The system consists of three parts: electron gun, superconducting magnet, and mode converters. A relativistic electron beam is generated by a magnetron injection gun or a cusp gun. Then the as-generated beam gyrates in the strong magnetic field (e.g. 560 GHz @ 20 Tesla) and then interacts with the desired wave. A mode converter is employed to launch the desired wave to the interacting region or to extract a wave power. However, the electron gun is generally limited to the export license and the mode converters are very difficult to construct. These two components are critical but not commercially available.
The Tsing Hua抯 high-frequency lab has accumulated sufficient momentum to step into the sub-millimeter region to bridge the terahertz gap. The new electron guns for high-power terahertz sources is designed, simulated, and fabricated. The development of terahertz mode converters is jointly conducted with the LIGA group of the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center. We are in a very good position to lead the world in the medium-power terahertz research.




Day 3: 11:10 ?11:30

High-field Physics at IAMS-Academia Sinica
Jyhpyng Wang1,2,3,*, Szu-Yuan Chen1,2, Jiunn-Yuan Lin4, and Hsu-Hsin Chu2
1. Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica
2. Department of Physics, National Central University
3. Department of Physics, National Taiwan University
4. Department of Physics, National Chung-Cheng University
* Corresponding author. E-mail: jwang@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Tel: +886-2-2366-8263
Abstract
A high-performance 10-TW laser was used for the development of high-field physics at Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica. A technique for fabricating real-time programmable transient plasma structures to gain fine control on laser-plasma interaction was developed, and a general method of tomographic measurement for laser-plasma interaction was established.
In the development of laser-wakefield electron accelerators, we have demonstrated mono-energetic acceleration to 45 MeV with only 230 mJ of pumping energy. We proved experimentally that elections are self-injected at a localized position as hypothesized in the 揵ubble regime?model. Our precise measurement of the acceleration gradient verified an astonishing 250-GeV/m acceleration field.
In the development of soft x-ray lasers, we applied optical-field-ionization on jets of noble-gas clusters as an efficient pumping method. By implementing the x-ray laser in an optically preformed plasma waveguide to overcome ionization defocusing and diffraction of the pump laser, we have boosted the output to 1011 photons per pulse with the highest laser-to-soft-x-ray conversion efficiency to date. The x-ray laser fires at 10 Hz, with an average spectral brightness exceeding the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation in Hsin-Chu and a peak spectral brightness 109 times larger.
In the development of plasma nonlinear optics, we fabricated periodic plasma structures to achieve quasi-phase matching for relativistic harmonic generation. We have also implemented Raman backward amplifiers in an optically preformed plasma waveguide. A gain as large as 900 was demonstrated.
For next-generation experiments we have constructed a versatile 100-TW laser facility and four experimental stations in National Central University. We are characterizing and tuning up the system, and at the same time trial experiments on relativistic high harmonic generation, optically controlled electron injection, and proton acceleration have been started.



Day 3: 11:30 ?11:50

Relativistic Ion Cyclotron Modes Driven by Energetic Alpha Particles in Nonuniform Magnetic Field
K. R. Chen1, 2, 3, *, T. H. Tsai1, 2, L. Chen4
1. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Institute of Electro-optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
4. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575, USA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: chenkr@mail.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
Resonance is a fundamental issue in science and requires precise synchronization. As an ion version of cyclotron maser, relativistic ion cyclotron instability is driven by fusion produced MeV ions whose Lorentz factor is very close to unity. Cyclotron maser requires a small positive frequency mismatch between the wave and the harmonic cyclotron motion of fast particles. Thus, it is generally believed that it can not survive the nonuniformity of magnetic field such as in realistic devices. However, our simulations have shown that localized cyclotron waves are excited when the magnetic field is with a sinusoidal nonuniformity much larger than the frequency mismatch required. This indicates that resonance is a consequence of the need to drive instability for dissipating free energy and increasing the entropy. When a favorable wave eigen-frequency is collectively decided in a coherent means, a special wave form in real space is created for this purpose, even without boundary. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the wave eigen-frequency found can be lower than the local harmonic cyclotron frequency. A systematic perturbation theory based on the absolute instability condition has been developed and there are good agreements between simulation and theory results.


Poster Session

Friday, 11/7, 17:10 ?18:10

[P01]

Analytic Study on Localized Wave Modes Driven by Relativistic Ion Cyclotron in Nonuniform Magnetic Field
T. H. Tsai1,*, K. R. Chen1,2,3, L. Chen4
1. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Institute of Electro-optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
4. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575, USA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: tsai.tsunghua@gmail.com
Abstract
A systematic perturbation theory is developed to study in-depth the localized ion cyclotron modes observed in our simulation. The parabolic magnetic field profile studied in the theory is an approximation of the magnetic field at the minimum of the sinusoidal profile considered in the simulation. The theory is based on an absolute instability condition and the assumption of local homogeneity. It reveals the mechanism for driving the localized modes by fusion-produced alpha particles. The analytical results indicate that the localized modes are corresponding to the eigenmodes excited by the relativistic alpha-driven ion cyclotron instabilities at a specific eigen-frequency. The frequency, growth rate and spatial profile of the wave modes obtained from the analytical theory are in a good agreement with the simulation results. Moreover, both our analytical and simulation results show that the wave modes can exist at where the wave eigen-frequency is lower than the local harmonic cyclotron frequency; even this violates the resonance condition required for the relativistic cyclotron instabilities as generally believed.




[P02]

A Revisit to Lawson Criterion
Max Chung1,2,*, Hung-Yi Lin3, Jen-Hui Tsai3, Chin-Chen Chu4
1. Department of Electronics Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan, Taiwan
2. Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3. Mechanical and System Research Laboratories, ITRI, Hsinchu, Taiwan
4. Dept. of Anesthesiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: maxchung@so-net.net.tw; Tel: 0932775652
Abstract
Lawson criterion has become 搕he?guide line for various fusion reactors design since its simple incubation in 1955. The more popular triple product form requires , and the other demands . Less is noticed that the original derivation of these criterions relies on the following assumptions: 1) the fusion reactor is to operate in steady state. 2) All species are assumed to have the same temperature. 3) There are no impurities ions present. 4) For D-T reaction, both are present in the optimal 50-50 mixture. 5) Both species are in Maxwellian distribution. 6) An empirical proportional to relation is used. So far, these assumptions are even less realized than the conclusions. By examining the reported experimental data and theories on instabilities we come to perceive that the fundamental fallacy of this reasoning is the hope for a 搒teady state? operation, which implies a globally uniform environment, and does not exist in any real energy conversion reactions. A pulsed reactor that utilizes the instabilities instead of trying to derogate them may have more chance to succeed in the quest for fusion.




[P03]

Shear Alfven Wave Dynamics in Gyrokinetic Tokamak Plasmas
Yasutaro Nishimura1,2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Work done in collaboration with US-DOE SciDAC GPS-TTBT team
E-mail: nishimura@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
Electromagnetic gyrokinetic particle simulation in a full global tokamak geometry is developed and presented. In the burning plasma experiments, ITER for example, fusion born alpha particles can play an important role in macroscopic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) behavior of the plasma. On the other hand, inclusion of magnetic fluctuations (on top of electrostatic ones) is indispensable for the accurate prediction of particle and heat transport. In this talk, we start from verifying the shear Alfven wave propagation in the absence of the instability drives. The Alfven wave experiences continuum damping due to the plasma inhomogenity. Furthermore, the tokamak toroidal geometry breaks the continuum and generates the frequency forbidden band. In the presence of energetic particles, Toroidicity Induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) is excited. In the presence of pressure gradient drive, kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) is destabilized.**The latest effort on the nonlinear simulation is discussed together with the schemes employed in the electromagnetic simulation. This work is partly supported by US DOE SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport of Burning Plasmas.

**Y.Nishimura, Z.Lin, W.X.Wang, Phys. Plasmas 14 042503 (2007). Y.Nishimura et al. to be published in Comm. Comput. Phys. (2009).
Acknowledgement: Prof. C.Z.Cheng, Prof.K.C.Shaing.

[P04]

Fast ion Physics in Tokamak Plasmas
C. Z. Cheng1,2,*, N. N. Gorelenkov3, G. J. Kramer3, M. Ishikawa4, M. Takechi4, K. Shinohara4, Y. Kusama4
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, NJ, USA
4. JT-60U, Naka Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan
* Corresponding author
Abstract
Fast ion confinement is a critical physics issue in tokamak burning plasmas because energetic particles provide the dominant plasma heating power in fusion reactors and their loss can cause harmful effect on the first wall. In particular, Alfven type modes such as Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs), Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs), fishbones and other resoanating energetic particle modes have been shown both theoretically and experimentally to cause serious energetic particle loss or redistribution in the radial profile. In this talk we will review highlights of experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Several linear and nonlinear simulation codes based on a kinetic-MHD model have been developed and applied to gain understanding of the fast ion physics. Challenge in modeling the fast ion physics in future burning plasma devices will be discussed.




[P05]

Interferometry Development for Magnetized Plasma Device at PSSC
C. T. Fan*, F. Y. Xiao, C. Z. Cheng
Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: chaota@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
A fundamental understanding of the physics of magnetic confinement plasmas is essential to the development of magnetic confinement fusion. A magnetic mirror plasma device with density 1016~1018 m-3, energy 5-20eV, magnetic field B~0.2 Tesla is being constructed at PSSC in NCKU. With microwave-millimeter wave technologies, plasma imaging systems are under development to measure density profile and fluctuations and temperature of high temperature plasmas in magnetic field. In this paper, we present the design of an interferometry system which measures the refractive index of plasmas.

 

 

Hydrogen Thyratrons are used in such devices as radars with different power levels, high-power pulsed technical, electrophysical, medical devices and lasers. Sophisticated design and high quality ceramic-metal envelope determines long lifetime and very accurate and reliable operation of hydrogen thyratrons under wide range of environmental conditions.
Applications:
- radars
- pulsed  lasers power supplies
- medical apparatus
- electrophysical instrumentation

Triggered Three-Electrode Spark Gap Switches are ceramic-metal sealed off gas discharge trigatron-type devices with a co-axial trigger electrode. These Gas Discharge Tubes contain no mercury and, due to an advanced design, feature high reliability and a long lifetime being operating under wide range of environmental conditions.
Applications:
- pulsed installation for processing materials
- installations with plasma focus
- pulse power supplies for lasers and other pulse equipment
- medical apparatus such as lithotriptors and defibrillators
- processing systems for petroleum wells




[P06]

Magnetized Plasma Experiments Using Plasma Emitter
Eiichirou Kawamori1,*, C. Z. Cheng2, Nobuko Fujikawa2, Jyun-Yi Lee3, Yong-yuan Liao1, Stephanie Chung1, Wun-Jheng Syugu3, Hui-kuan Fang3, Albert Peng3
1. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: kawamori@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
We are developing a magnetic mirror device, which is the first magnetized plasma device in Taiwan, to explore basic plasma sciences relevant to fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas. Our research subjects include electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), Alfven wave physics, and plasma turbulence of ITG mode (ion temperature gradient mode). A large diameter (> 200 mm) plasma emitter1, which utilizes thermionic-thermoelectronic emission from a mixture of LaB6 (Lanthanum-hexaboride) and beta-eucryptite (lithium type aluminosylicate) powders, is employed as a plasma source because of its production ability of fully ionized plasma and controllability of plasma emission rate. The plasma emitter has been installed recently and investigation of its characteristics will be started. The employment of beta-eucryptite in plasma emitter is the first experimental test because such investigation of beta-eucryptite has previously been used only for Li+-ion source2. Our plan for magnetized plasma experiments and results of the plasma emitter investigation will be presented.

References
1. K. Saeki, S. Iizuka, N. Sato, and Y. Hatta, Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 1980, pp. 37-38.
2. M. Ueda, R. R. Silva, R. M. Oliveira, H. Iguchi, J. Fujita and K. Kadota, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1997, pp. 2711?716.




[P07]

Development of Langmuir Probe System for Turbulence Study in Magnetized Plasma
J. Y. Lee1,2,*, E. Kawamori2,3, C. Z. Cheng2,3
1. Physics Department, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
* Corresponding author
Abstract
Turbulence is one of the crucial research subject in order to realize fusion plasma reactor because it may deteriorate confinement of plasmas. Many fusion researchers have been engaging in study of turbulence in order to control and suppress it. We plan to do experiment for studying drift wave and ion temperature gradient mode turbulence with the magnetic mirror device which is the first magnetized plasma device in Taiwan. We are developing Langmuir probe system to measure plasma density, temperature and fluctuations because of its simplicity and ability to measure local quantities. Design and construction of the probe and detection circuit (current-voltage converter) are finished, together with frequency response test of the circuit. Cutoff frequency of the circuit is found to be 30 kHz, which satisfies our requirement for fluctuation measurement. Now we are developing data acquisition system. Before long, the mirror machine will be in operation and turbulence experiment will be started.




[P08]

Ion Beam System for Space Instrument Test and Calibration 1
N. Fujikawa1,*, K. M. Peng1,2, D. Hung1, E. Kawamori1,3, A. B. Chen1,3, C. Z. Chneg1,2,3, M. Hirahara4
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
4. Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Japan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: fujikawa@pssc.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-6-275-7575 ext. 65273
Abstract
It has become important to have space plasma mass analyzers which can measure 3-dimensinal velocity distributions with wide energy range and fine time and space resolution for comprehensive understanding of space environment surrounding the Earth. A reliable calibration facility capable of simulating variety of space plasma flows is necessary to develop such analyzers.
A new system is being developed for calibration of space plasma instruments that uses ion beam of energy range of 5 keV to 150 keV in Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University.
The system consists of an ion source, an ExB mass spectrometer, a beam expander, a beam accelerator, a drift tube and a 3-axis turntable in the main chamber. Neutral gas such as N2, O2, He, and H2 is introduced to the ion source and ionized by an electron gun, then accelerated to an energy of several keV/charge and passed to the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer has a 90 degree crossed electric and magnetic field to select desired mass species. Ion beam is expanded by means of electric field oscillation, 2 set of meshed electrodes, and lends electric field, then accelerated to up to 150 keV by a potential drop in the accelerator tube. The drift tube has a 2-dimentional-beam profile monitor. In the main chamber the 3-axis turntable is set. We will discuss the design and report the progress of the system development.



[P09]

Ion Beam System for Space Instrument Test and Calibration 2
K.M. Peng1,2,*, N. Fujikawa1, E. Kawamori1,3, W.T.Liu1, S.M. Huang1, C.Z. Cheng1,2,3
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: albert.peng@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
An ion beam system for calibration of space plasma diagnostic instruments is being constructed for the first time in Taiwan. Beams of several ion species with energy range from 5 to 130 keV are provided by this system. The ion beam is required to be highly parallel with good uniformity and mass resolution. In this paper we present the design of the electron gun with a 2 mm aperture for ion production, the ion mass/charge selector which the permanent magnet is chosen to be 0.05 T and 0.3 T, and a 1-D movable Faraday Cup Array with 64 cups and 1 mm spatial resolution for ion beam diagnostics.




[P10]

ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Observations of Azimuthal Structure of Breakup Arcs
T.F. Chang1,2,*, C.Z. Cheng1,3, C.Y. Chiang2, Sunny W.Y. Tam1,3, Alfred B. Chen1,3, R.R. Hsu1,2,3, H.T. Su2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: jocelyn@pssc.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-6-235-4247
Abstract
The FORMOSAT-2 satellite has been used to investigate auroral substorm phenomena. We have successfully obtained breakup arc initiation for substorm events at wavelength of 557.7nm and 630.0nm over the Alaska-Canada border region. A well-defined wave form in the brightness along the arc that grew in intensity was observed before expansive onset while the azimuthal expansion was occurring. After onset, the observed breakup arc started an explosive poleward expansion from the initial arc position over next tens of seconds. The observed azimuthal structure of the substorm breakup arc at onset is similar to the events observed by THEMIS All Sky Imagers at Fort Yukon and is consistent with the kinetic theory of ballooning modes, which showed the most unstable mode at about ?8-10) with azimuthal mode number m ~200 to ~300.



[P11]

ISUAL Side-way Observation of the OI(1D) Night Airglows
Chih-Yu Chiang1,*, Tzu-Fang Chang1,2, Chien-Hung Lin2, P. K. Rajesh3, Jann-Yenq Liu3, Alfred Bing-Chih Chen1,2, Han-Tzong Su1,2, Rue-Ron Hsu1,2
1. Physics Department, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City, 70101, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng-Kung University, No.1 University Road, Tainan City, 70101, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space Science, National Center University, No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: johnson@phys.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
Recently, ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 Satellite has devoted more observation time to investigate the OI(1D) nightglow from the sideway, which provides the first comprehensive survey of 630.0nm emission in the pre-midnight sector at F layer. It is found that the OI(1D) nightglow enhancement exhibited remarkable seasonal variations. In this study, we want to highlight the following three points. First, semiannual anomaly and winter anomaly existed in the form of the brightening emission in the region of equatorial anomaly. Second, the data indicates that the tidally enhanced regions show significant longitudinal variability. Third, the latitudinal variability of OI(1D) nightglow can be contributed to both the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) effect and the upward propagation tides.




[P12]

Concurrent Observations of the 630.0 nm Ionospheric Airglow and the Electron Density
K. W. Liu1,2,*, C. H. Lin2,3, C. Y. Chiang1, T. F. Chang1,2, C. Z. Cheng2,3,
A. B. Chen3, R. R. Hsu1,3, H. T. Su1
1. Physics Department, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
* Corresponding author
Abstract
In this study, ionospheric airglow in 630.0 nm wavelength observed by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on board the Formosa Satellite-2 (FORMOSAT-2) are used to compare with the global three-dimensional electron density structure obtained by the radio occultation experiment (GOX) of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC. The ISUAL observes airglow at around 2230 to 2300 LT in the limb-scanned direction where the latitude-altitude distributions of the airglow brightness are used to compare with the electron density profile during the entire year of 2007. The airglow emission in 630.0 nm is proportional to abundances of the molecular oxygen and the oxygen ion, the major ion species between 200 and 300 km altitudes. The comparisons show clear seasonal variations and qualitative agreements between the two observations. We discuss the relationships between the 630.0 nm airglow and the electron density variations as well as the associated global distributions.




[P13]

Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by FORMOSAT-2 Airglow and GPS-TEC
Yi-Shiuang Wu1,*, Chih-Yu Chiang1, Chia-Hung Chen2 , Chien-Hung Lin3, Rue-Ron Hsu1,3
1. Department of physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Institute of Space Science, National Center University, Taiwan
3. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author
Abstract
The image of Sprites and Upper Atomospheric Lighting (ISUAL) on board the Formosa Satellite 2 (FORMOSAT-2) observes the travel ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and similar wave-structure in 630.0nm airglow. The wave structure occured during 27 June - 2 July 2007 at around 200-250 km altitude. To further study the characterictics of the disturbances, a network of ground-based GPS receivers is utilized to observe the effect to the total electron content (TEC). The concurrent observations in airglow and GPS-TEC provide three-dimensional structure of the TIDs and the associated wave characters.




[P14]

Probing the Ionosphere by the Global Navigation Satellite System and the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Constellation
Charles C. H. Lin1,2,*, J. Y. Tiger Liu3, C. H. Chen3, H. F. Tsai4
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3. Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan
4. Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan
* Corresponding author
Abstract
Studies of the Earth抯 ionosphere have entered a new era with increasing availability of global observations from mass ground-based stations and innovative satellite missions carrying the space-borne receivers of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Through the techniques built for retrieving ionospheric information from received signals, receiver networks of the GNSS provide continuous observations of the ionosphere electron density structure globally. These widely available and continuous observations provide unprecedented details of the ionosphere and, therefore, new plasma structures are found, such as the ionospheric drainage plume as the signature of the plasmaspheric tail often seen in the North America, the large-scale and meso-scale travel ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs and MSTIDs) seen over Japan, the longitudinal wavenumber four structure of the equatorial ionosphere produced by the atmospheric waves, and the anomalous nighttime enhancement of the electron density at mid-latitudes. These new ionospheric structures result from either the magnetosphere-ionosphere or the ionosphere-atmosphere coupling processes and greatly improve our understanding of the ionosphere dynamics. In this presentation, examples of these new ionospheric plasma structures and the corresponding physical mechanisms are presented and discussed. Additionally, perspective studies that can be further reached by GNSS observations will also be addressed.




[P15]

Influence of Geomagnetic Activities on the Ionospheric Electrons: Statistical Study Based on FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Observations
Sunny W.Y. Tam1,2,*, Kaiti Wang1, Chien-Han Chen3
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
3. Satellite Geoinformatics Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: sunwytam@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
The GPS occultation experiment (GOX) aboard the six satellites of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission, a Taiwan-US collaborative project, has been providing, among other data, observations of vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere up to 800 km altitude since 2006. As GOX obtains more than 2,000 such density profiles per day, each based on a GPS occultation event, the large amount of data from the mission provides an excellent opportunity for studying the ionosphere.
The ionospheric plasma usually responds drastically to severe space weather conditions, signified by strong magnetic field disturbances in the near-Earth environment. This statistical study utilizes the GOX data to investigate the global ionospheric electron density under different levels of geomagnetic activities, as characterized by the Kp and Dst indices. Specifically, we examine the following quantities associated with the electron density: NmF2 (peak electron density), hmF2 (altitude that corresponds to NmF2), and TEC (total electron content). We find that in general, the stronger the geomagnetic activities, the higher NmF2. One region of exception, however, is the dawn/early morning sector at midlatitudes, where NmF2 is significantly lower at Kp = 5 than at Kp = 0. We will focus our discussion on the change in the average electron density profile in that region as the level of geomagnetic disturbances increases.


[P16]

Calculation of Substorm Particle Injection Including Relativistic Effect
W. C. Lin1,*, C. Z. Cheng1,2
1. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: wclin@pssc.ncku.edu.tw
Abstract
In previous work (Sorin Zaharia and C.Z Cheng, J. Geophys. Res., 105,18741), energetic particles flux enhancement events during substorms are studied by considering the interaction of particles with earthward propagating electromagnetic pulses of westward electric field and consistent magnetic field of localized radial and azimuthal extent in a background magnetic field using non-relativistic equation of motion. And the energetic particle flux enhancement is mainly due to betatron acceleration: particles are swept by the earthward propagating electromagnetic pulses via the E x B drift toward the Earth to higher magnetic field location and are energized because of the magnetic moment conservation.
In this work we study particle injection employing the relativistic equation of motion for particles, which is important for high energy particles. Our model calculation shows agreement with previous work in non- relativistic limit, and we will present results for particles with very high energy to see the change due to relativistic effect.




[P17]

Source Mechanism of Low-Latitude ELF-Whistlers Observed in Taiwan
Kaiti Wang1,*, Yun-Ching Wang2, Han-Tzong Su2, Ruei-Ron Hsu2, Tzu-Yuan Lin2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: ktwang@pssc.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-6-238-3399 ext. 610
Abstract
ELF-whistlers events with frequencies between 60 and 100 Hz detected at the Lulin Observatory in Taiwan from August 26, 2003 to July 13, 2004 have been reported. The observational features are distinguished in the following aspects (a) Daytime occurrence between 5 am to 8 pm (b) Long duration for each event up to the average value of two minutes, much larger than the conventional VLF whistlers. In this paper, we propose a generation mechanism model to interpret the observed features based on whistler-mode waves propagating in multi-ion plasma. The observations of lightning activities from WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network) are also adopted to investigate the possible source locations of these whistler-mode waves.




[P18]

Magnetospheric Equilibrium with Toroidal Rotation
Marty Chou1,*, C. Z. (Frank) Cheng1,2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: mchou@pssc.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-6-238-3399 ext. 802
Abstract
The equilibrium of planetary magnetosphere is controlled by a strong coupling between the distributions of the magnetic field and the different plasma populations trapped in the field. We propose an axisymmetric solution of the self-consistent equilibrium which includes plasma rotation.




[P19]

Magnetic Reconnection Rate in Large Solar Flares
Ya-Hui Yang1,*, C. Z. Cheng1,2
1. Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
2. Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
* Corresponding author. E-mail: yhyang@pssc.ncku.edu.tw; Tel: +886-6-238-3399 ext. 611
Abstract
The magnetic reconnection in the corona is generally believed to be responsible for the energy release and particle acceleration in solar flares. Since the reconnection is difficult to be observed directly, the movements of associated HXR (hard X-ray) kernels and Hα/EUV ribbons thus provide important information in understanding the magnetic reconnection process. To determine the reconnection rate in a flare, the magnitude of local electric fields along each Hα/EUV ribbon is derived in this study by estimating the magnetic flux change rate in the areas of enhanced Hα/EUV intensity at a flaring time. Such spatial distribution of reconnection electric fields is then compared with the HXR fluxes at the corresponding positions to relate the maximum value of reconnection electric fields to the locations of HXR kernels observed by RHESSI. Moreover, to figure out the characteristics of magnetic reconnection in different flaring phases, the temporal correlation between the reconnection electric fields and the HXR lightcurves for each HXR kernel is analyzed as well. The results in several M- and X-class flares will be presented and discussed here.



[P20]

How the Radial Velocity in and around of the Local Super Cluster Depend in the Spatial Orientations of Galaxies?
B. Aryal1,2, P. R. Kafle2,*, W. Saurer1
1. Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2. Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
* Corresponding author
Abstract
We study the radial velocity dependence in the spatial orientations of 10 562 spiral galaxies that have radial velocity <5000 km s-1. The inclination angle and intrinsic flatness of galaxy are used to convert two-dimensional given parameters into three-dimensional spin vectors of the galaxy. We have performed Kolmogorov朣mirnov, Kuiper and Fourier tests in order to examine non-random effects in the expected isotropic distributions. The galaxies that have radial velocities 1500 to 2000 and 3000 to 3500 km s-1 show preferred alignments in both the two- and three-dimensional analysis. The possible explanations of the results will be discussed.

 

 

Del Mar Photonics featured components

Del Mar Photonics continuously expands its components portfolio.


 
Solar Prisms for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV)
Solar cells made of compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide are very expensive. Usually very small cells are installed and various means such as mirrors, lenses, prisms, etc..are used  to concentrate sunlight on the cells. Concentration photovoltaic technology (CPV) uses the solar radiation with an efficiency of 40%, double that of conventional solar cells
Del Mar Photonics design custom Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV) and supply variety of the optical components for CPV such as solar prisms shown in the picture.
 

hexagonal light pipes, optical rods


 
Axicon Lens
Axicon lens also known as conical lens or rotationally symmetric prism is widely used in different scientific research and application. Axicon can be used to convert a parallel laser beam into a ring, to create a non diffractive Bessel beam or to focus a parallel beam into long focus depth.
Del Mar Photonics supplies axicons with cone angles range from 130?to 179.5?for use with virtually any laser radiation. We manufacture and supply axicons made from BK7 glass, fused silica and other materials.

download brochure -
request a quote
Del Mar Photonics offers optical elements made of high quality synthetically grown Rutile Titanium Dioxide crystals. Rutile (TiO2) coupling prisms
Del Mar Photonics offers optical elements made of high quality synthetically grown Rutile Titanium Dioxide crystals. Rutile抯 strong birefringency, wide transmission range and good mechanical properties make it suitable for fabrication of polarizing cubes, prisms and optical isolators. Boules having high optical transmission and homogeneity are grown by proprietary method. Typical boules have 10 - 15 mm in dia. and up to 25 mm length. Optical elements sizes - from 2 x 2 x 1 mm to 12.7 x 12.7 x 12.7 mm. Laser grade polish quality is available for finished elements. So far we the largest elements that we manufactured are 12 x15 x 5 mm, in which optical axis is parallel to 15 mm edge, 5 mm is along beam path, 12 x 15 mm faces polished 20/10 S/D, one wave flatness, parallelism < 3 arc.min. (better specs. available on request).

more details - download brochure - request a quote - properties incl. refractive index

Sapphire components
Sapphire Circular Windows - Square & Rectangle - Rods
Sapphire & Ruby Rings - Sapphire & Ruby Balls - Sapphire & Ruby Nozzles
Sapphire Lenses - Ball & Seat - Special Products - Sapphire Vee & Cup Jewels
Sapphire Ceramics - Ceramic Sleeves - Ceramic Holes - Ceramic Rods
Sapphire & Ruby Orifices - Sapphire & Ruby Tubes - Sapphire Components
Sapphire Half Round Rod - Sapphire Windows - Rods & Tubes - Special Part
Sapphire Prism - Sapphire Chisel -
Sapphire Square Rod

Vacuum viewport

Del Mar Photonics offer a range of competitively priced UHV viewports , Conflat, ISO or KF including a variety of coatings to enhance performance. Del Mar Photonics viewports are manufactured using advanced techniques for control of special and critical processes, including 100 percent helium leak testing and x-ray measurements for metallization control. Windows Materials include: Fused silica, Quartz , Sapphire , MgF2, BaF2, CaF2, ZnSe, ZnS, Ge, Si, Pyrex. Standard Viewing diameters from .55" to 1.94 ".
Coating - a range of custom coatings can applied - which include
- Single QWOT
- Broad Band AR
- V coatings
- ITO
- DLC (Diamond like coating)

more details - request a quote

 

NARROW-BAND HOLOGRAPHIC FILTERS are intended for suppression of powerful beams in research and in engineering, in particular, in laser spectroscopy, and also for protection from blinding and damaging by laser radiation various photo receiver devices and operator's eyes.

Unlike conventional interference filters, which are made by vacuum evaporation techniques, holographic filters are fabricated by recording interference patterns formed between two mutually coherent laser beams. Since all layers are recorded simultaneously within a thick stack, the optical density of the notch filter is high and its spectral bandwidth can be extremely narrow. Also, since the layering profile is sinusoidal instead of square wave, holographic notch filters are free from extraneous reflection bands and provide significantly higher laser damage thresholds.

 

We are looking forward to hear from you and help you with your optical and crystal components requirements. Need time to think about it? Drop us a line and we'll send you beautiful Del Mar Photonics mug (or two) so you can have a tea party with your colleagues and discuss your potential needs.

 

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Del Mar Photonics, Inc.
4119 Twilight Ridge
San Diego, CA 92130
tel: (858) 876-3133
fax: (858) 630-2376
Skype: delmarphotonics
sales@www.alaindidierweill.com
 

 

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