Del Mar Photonics

Del Mar Photonics at SPIE Defense, Security +Sensing SPIE DSS conference

Defense, Security + Sensing

13 - 17 April 2009
Orlando World Center Marriott Resort & Convention Center
Orlando, FL United States

Instruments for Nanotechnologies

AFM HERON
Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM)
Femtosecond nanophotonics
Femtosecond NSOM

Nanotechnology related presentations - Femtosecond related presentations

Nanothermites for space and defence applications (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7314-23 of Conference 7314
Authors(s): Marc Comet, Denis Spitzer, Jean-Pierre Moeglin, Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis (France)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
In this presentation, three examples of nanothermites will be given in order to illustrate the contribution of these nanomaterials in the future spatial and defence applications:
- the incidence of the size of the metallic oxide particles on the reactivity is illustrated by the case of WO3/Al nanothermites,
- the correlation between the composition/structure of the oxide phase and the reactivity was achieved on AlxMoyOz/Al nanothermites,
- the fabrication of Gas Generating Nanothermites was performed by adding military explosives in porous mineral oxides used to fabricate nanothermites.

Micro/nanomanufactured THz electromagnetic metamaterials as a base for applications in transportation (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7314-15 of Conference 7314
Authors(s): Herbert O. Moser, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Electromagnetic metamaterials (EM3) have been considered for a variety of applications in automotive transportation from radar to night vision at THz and optical frequencies. Using rod-split-ring or S-string designs, SSLS has developed high-aspect-ratio and free-standing EM3 from 1 THz upwards. In free-standing EM3, S-strings are freely suspended by window-frames and will, eventually, become self-supported grids. Window-frame-held chips already cover a comparably large area of 56 mm2. As the refractive index may vary from positive to negative, spectral and spatial properties of filters, absorbers, reflectors, and antennae may be tailored, making such materials a potential "tool kit" for applications in transportation.

Metal-coated Si nanograss as highly sensitive SERS sensors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-17 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Jing Tang, Fung-Suong Ou, Huei-Pei Kuo, Hewlett-Packard Labs. (United States); William F. Stickle, Hewlett-Packard Co. (United States); Shih-Yuan Wang, Wei Wu, Zhiyong Li, R. Stanley Williams, Hewlett-Packard Labs. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted great attention due to its tremendous potential for chemical and biomolecular sensing. We created novel SERS substrates by metalization (Ag or Au) of Si nanograss fabricated by a Bosch process on single crystalline silicon. The dependence of the SERS effect on the surface morphology and topology of the substrate prior to metal deposition (controlled by the process parameters such as etching time and oxygen flow rate) and on the thickness of the metal deposition was thoroughly studied in order to optimize the SERS signals. We demonstrated that the fabricated SERS substrates are highly sensitive and can produce more than 10 times higher SERS signals than the commercially available SERS substrate. No template or lithography was used in making such substrates, thus providing a simple and inexpensive method to achieve highly sensitive large-area SERS substrates.

Nanosurgeon (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-27 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): Huan-Yao Lei, National Cheng Kung Univ. (Taiwan); Ching-An Peng, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Taiwan); Ming J. Tang M.D., National Cheng Kung Univ. (Taiwan); Harold H. Szu, Naval Surface Warfare Ctr. (United States); Kitt C. Reinhardt, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
We explore a nano-surgeon enabled by nano-manipulator to eradicate the point tumors.
Preliminary results will be presented.

A nanocontact cross-junction diode for rectenna (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-52 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Onejae Sul, Rajen Dutta, Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
An MIM, Metal-Insulator-Metal, diode is known as best one among many kinds of diodes, for high frequency rectification purpose such as light energy collection, due to fast electron tunneling. For better rectification and energy harvesting efficiency, two new approaches are taken. By using MIIM structure, better non-linearity is expected. The cut-off frequency of a diode is determined by the cross-section area of it. By using cross-junction of two nanowires, diode cross-section will be minimized under 10 by 10 nm for visible light frequency.

The use of linear covariance techniques in the evaluation of nanosatellite attitude determination system accuracy (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7330-5 of Conference 7330
Authors(s): Rollin R. Fullmer, Utah State Univ. (United States); Klaus-Juergen Schilling, Univ. W黵zburg (Germany); Anders Forslund, David Geller, Alexander Nucera, Utah State Univ. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
An analysis method for estimating the attitude determination accuracy of a nanosatellite during the design phase is introduced. The software tool 揂force? which implements a Linear Covariance analysis technique, is presented. This method singles out the error contribution made by each modeled error source. This ability provides a designer with rapid attitude accuracy estimates resulting from design changes. Examples including the selection of better sensors, ground calibration tests, and the inclusion of additional states in the Kalman filtering algorithm for two satellites will be presented.

Nanomaterial sensing (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-26 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): Francisco Santiago, Harold H. Szu, NSWCDD (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
We review nanomaterial for sensing of EOIR. It provides a powerful messo-scale interface between macroscopic world that we live and the microscopic world that atoms live.

Nanoengineering Award presentation (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-33 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): Robert D. Shull, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
No description available
Engineering nanopatterned surfaces for real-time colorimetric detection of biochemical agents (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-17 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Ashwin Gopinath, Gary F. Walsh, Sylvanus Y. Lee, Svetlana V. Boriskina, Luca Dal Negro, Boston Univ. (United States); Jason Amsden, David L. Kaplan, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto, Tufts Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
In this talk, we will discuss the design, nanofabrication and optical scattering characterization of novel colorimetric bio-sensors based on sensitive color change and light localization in nano-textured surfaces base on biocompatible optical materials. Our approach hinges on the integration of photonic crystal optics, top-down nanofabrication techniques (electron-beam lithography) and direct nano-imprint lithography for the nanoscale control of the colorimetric response (light scattering) from chip-scale structures capable of for real-time biochemical detection.

Lanthanide-halide-based nanoscintillators for portable radiological detectors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7306A-46 of Conference 7306A
Authors(s): Marek Osinski, Krishnaprasad Sankar, Nathan J. Withers, John B. Plumley, Antonio C. Rivera, Brian A. Akins, Gennady A. Smolyakov, The Univ. of New Mexico (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Lanthanum fluoride nanocrystals doped with various concentrations of cerium were synthesized using colloidal approach. The nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), steady state UV-visible optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and by photoluminescence lifetime and quantum efficiency measurements. The radiation hardness of the synthesized material was tested using a 137Cs gamma source. Scintillation was observed from the LaF3:Ce nanocrystals exposed to low-level gamma irradiation.

Lead-iodide-based nanoscintillators for detection of ionizing radiation (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-61 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Nathan J. Withers, Brian A. Akins, Antonio C. Rivera, John B. Plumley, Gennady A. Smolyakov, Marek Osinski, The Univ. of New Mexico (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
A variety of lead-iodide-based nanocrystals of interest as detectors of ionizing radiation were synthesized using colloidal approach. The nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), steady state UV-visible optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and by photoluminescence lifetime and quantum efficiency measurements. The radiation hardness of the synthesized material was tested using a 137Cs gamma source. Scintillation was observed from the lead-iodide based nanocrystals exposed to low-level gamma irradiation.

Nanosensor design for hydrogen detection (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-56 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Peng Zhang, Abihilash Vincent, Sudipta Seal, Hyoung Cho, Univ. of Central Florida (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
In this work, we present the design parameters and optimization of the nanoscale gap interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for hydrogen gas sensing. In order to extract important design parameters and understand the sensor performance, numerical analysis has been carried out for calculating the effect of electrical field on the sensor characteristics. The optimized design of IDEs with 50 nm in gap and 1,000 nm in width shows the change of electrical field in the thickness direction is much reduced. It is expected that this design responds better to conductance change on top surface and leads to shorter response time.

Nanosurfaces for nanosensing (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-37 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Edward Gillman, Alexander S. Raspopin, David Costello, Senspex (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
Nanoscale electric field confinement and enhancement is a well known phenomenon for small particles and flat interfaces. Senspex is using e-beam lithography to develop nanosensors for the detection of biological and chemical hazards. The sensors that are being developed are a square array of metallic cubes; each cube has dimensions of approximately 100nm x 100nm x 30nm and a pitch of 125nm in the x- and y-directions. Senspex抯 numerical simulations show that the intense electric field in the minute volume between the cubes will lead to a high probability of detection for small concentrations of analyte in real world situations.

Nanoscale structure-activity relationships in the treatment of disease (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-1 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Daniel Feldheim, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
We have recently documented the use of an inorganic nanocrystal-based approach for the inhibition of HIV infection. The inhibitor was a 2.0 nm diameter gold nanocrystal displaying 12 copies of an organothiol ligand. The ligand itself was completely inactive toward the inhibition of HIV-1 infection; however upon conjugation of the ligand to a 2.0 nm diameter gold nanocrystal, we were able to create gold nanocrystal conjugates that were equipotent to some of the best HIV fusion inhibitors. These results have inspired us to think in new ways about gold nanocrystal-based therapeutic design. This talk will describe some of these considerations.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance of rough metallic nanowire-based devices (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-12 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Stergios J. Papadakis, Joan A. Hoffmann, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab. (United States); JiaHai Wang, Pawan Tiyagi, David H. Gracias, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
We grow rough metallic nanowires and test them using a scanning micro-Raman spectrometer for SERS performance for a range of simulants for chemical agents and biomarkers. Looking at hundreds of individual nanowires, we find that certain surface morphologies result in over 30% of the nanowires producing enhancement from 10^5 to 10^7.

The nanowires are electrochemically grown in alumina templates, which have smooth walls. Various methods of creating rough nanowires are discussed, including techniques which modify the template surfaces to generate the roughness during growth and post-processing techniques applied after the nanowires are released from the template.

Physical and chemical sensing based on micro- and nanotechnologies (Keynote Presentation) (Keynote)
Paper 7333-2 of Conference 7333
Presenter(s): Panos Datskos, Univ. of Tennessee (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
No description available
Ultra-high-sensitivity nanoplasmonic resonance energy transfer spectroscopic biomolecular imaging (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-3 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): G. Logan Liu, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Nanoplasmonic resonance spectroscopy enhances sensitivity and throughput of conventional SPR detection technique while still suffers with modest molecular specificity. Here we demonstrated a new sensing technique --- nano plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET) spectroscopy to detect complex biomolecular activities including conformational change, electron transfer and protein interactions with ultrahigh sensitivity and specificity. Compared to FRET sensing technology, PRET has much stronger optical signal to noise ratio and minimal photobleaching problems. Nano PRET spectroscopic molecular imaging technique can be used in multiplexed label-free cancer biomarker detections and environmental sensing applications.

Demonstration of flexible nanocomposite NIR mirror (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7298-38 of Conference 7298
Authors(s): Thad L. Druffel, Optical Dynamics Corp. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Thin film metal oxide coatings have been used commercially for electromagnetic filters from the UV to infra red regions for over half a century. Deposition onto a substrate has typically been accomplished using vapor deposition techniques and more recently sol-gel methods. These coatings provide very good optical performance under abrasion, thermal cycles and variable humidity when applied on substrates with similar thermal and mechanical properties. When conventional metal oxide coatings are applied to flexible, relatively soft substrates such as polymers, mismatches in mechanical properties can reduce interfacial adhesion or accelerate mechanical failures.

Nanofluidic biochips for use in the direct THz spectroscopic detection and identification of biological species (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-20 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Edgar A. Mendoza, Redondo Optics, Inc. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Optical based nanolithography is an enabling tool for the cost-efficient, high-throughput production of nanofluidic biochip sensor platforms that can be used for the detection and identification of biological materials and agents using integrated THz-frequency spectroscopic techniques. This paper describes preliminary experimental results obtained with the goal of developing accurate and sensitive THz characterization of aqueous biological samples diffusing through the channels of nanofluidic biochips produced using optical nanolithography techniques.

Heterogeneous 3D integration of multispectral photonic sensor with highly oriented micro/nanopillars of semiconductors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-4 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): M. Saif Islam, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
We developed a novel method for three-dimensional heterogeneous integration of devices based on any semiconductor material on a pliant surface with arbitrary surface profile. Arrays of optical detectors in the form of vertically oriented micro/nano-pillars with diverse bandgaps and physical properties are fabricated via synthetic bottom-up or transformative top down approaches on a single crystal surface and then transferred to a different target surface using a polymer assisted shear-fracturing process. The original wafers are used repeatedly for generating more devices and are never consumed. Ohmic contacts with low contact resistance are formed for individual electrical addressing of each layer of sensors using metals and/or conducting polymer such as PANI and PEDOT:PSS. The method offers an opportunity for device fabrication with low fill factor contributing to lower dark current, reduced parasitic capacitance and higher efficiency of light absorption.

Microfluidic and nanofluidic integration of plasmonic substrates for biosensing (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7322-5 of Conference 7322
Authors(s): David Sinton, Alexandre G. Brolo, Reuven Gordon, Univ. of Victoria (Canada)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Metallic nanohole arrays support surface electromagnetic waves that enable enhanced optical transmission and may be exploited for sensing. Our recent work in this area is described here. First, using a blocking layer to limit the exposed metal surface to the in-hole region is found to result in effective sensing in a much smaller, nanoconfined volume. Second, efforts to improve the optical detection are described including biaxial nanohole arrays and intensity-based multiplexed sensing. Third, the fluidic integration and transport aspects of on-chip nanohole array sensors are discussed. A flow-through nanohole array shows benefits with respect to reactant transport and sensor functionalization.

MEMS and nanotechnologies from devices to systems: DARPA's perspectives (Keynote Presentation) (Keynote)
Paper 7318-27 of Conference 7318
Presenter(s): Amit Lal, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
The core of MEMS technology is the capability to form chip-integrated micro beams, cantilevers, and plates. DARPA has mined MEMS technology in an effort to provide increased performance and functionality to integrated circuits. MEMS allows one to use reduced mass for increased resonance frequencies in micro-resonators; craft long and thin high aspect ratio structures for high thermal resistances; and generate huge surface-to-volume ratios for increased interaction with the environment. This talk will describe recent programs undertaken to exploit fundamental building blocks of MEMS to realize advances in sophisticated microsystems and nanomechanical systems.

Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-29 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): F. Jack Agee, Alice Chow, Rice Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
The scientific community is taking novel approaches to address the high demands of the aerospace industry. CONTACT (Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology) is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas that promotes collaboration between universities and accelerates output. The participants of the program include the Air Force Research Laboratory, five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. This paper provides an overview of the program and projects including the development and applications of new electrorheological fluids with nano-laden suspensions and composites.

Optimization of multilayer surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immuno-nanosensors via self-assembled monolayer spacers (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-11 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Charles K. Klutse, Honggang Li, Brian M. Cullum, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is becoming a preferred transduction method for intracellular nanosensors due to its high sensitivity. Our laboratory has been assessing the use of multilayers to enhance SERS sensitivity in a predictable way. This talk will evaluate SERS enhancement of multilayer film over nanostructures (MULTI-FONs) with self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) spacers. Monolayers with different chain lengths and tail groups are used as spacers in order to evaluate the effect of spacer length and chain functionalities on the SERS enhancement. This talk will also discuss functionalization of the SAM MULTI-FON with antibodies to develop immuno-nanosensors and the potential use for intracellular analysis

Nanotechnology enabled sensors and wireless sensing networks (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-32 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Ray Tsui, Islamshah Amlani, Sal Mastroianni, Motorola, Inc. (United States); Alvaro Diaz Aguilar, Erica Forzani, Nongjian Tao, Arizona State Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
The capabilities of future mobile communication devices will extend beyond merely transmitting and receiving voice, data, and video information. For example, first responders such as fire-fighters and emergency workers will wear environmentally-aware devices that will provide advanced warning of combustible and toxic gases as well as communicating that information wirelessly to the Command and Control Center. Similar sensor systems could be employed by warfighters which would alert to the presence of explosives or chemical and biological weapons. Novel sensors whose functionality is enhanced via nanotechnology will play a key role in realizing such systems.


Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in monolithic arrays of single photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) for spatially resolved detection of faint ultrafast optical signals.
In order to make SPAD array more and more competitive it is necessary to face several issues: dark counts, quantum efficiency, crosstalk, timing performance. These issues will be discussed in the context of two possible approaches to such a challenge: employing a standard industrial CMOS technology or developing a dedicated technology. Advances recently attained will be outlined with reference to both photon counting and Time correlated single photon counting detector arrays

 



Nanopatterning of microsensor arrays for pH monitoring (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-35 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Olga Korostynska, Khalil I. Arshak, Arousian Arshak, Edric Gill, Univ. of Limerick (Ireland)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
Novel method of manufacturing micro sensors arrays using BioForce NanoeNablerTM was successfully employed. These sensors were developed for biomedical applications, in particular pH monitoring. It is envisaged that findings of this work would form the basis for miniaturised point-of-care diagnostic system. The operation of the sensing elements is based on the properties of polymers, which exhibit a change in their electrical characteristics (such as resistance or capacitance) on exposure to solutions with different concentrations of pH value.

Carbon-based nanodevices for sensors, actuators, and electronics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-38 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
We are investigating carbon-based nanodevices aimed at developing future electronic processors with high-performance, bandwidth, and throughput. The fabrication, assembly and manipulation of carbon nanotubes are investigated for nanosensors/actuators and nanoelectronics. Further, graphene materials are fabricated and characterized to investigate its field emission properties for vacuum electronics and to exploit its differential conductivity for electron interferometer applications. These devices are deployable in a wide range of applications such as sensors, detectors, system-on-a-chip, system-in-a-package, programmable logic controls, energy storage systems and all-electronic systems.

Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond for MEMS and NEMS: opportunities and challenges (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-43 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Anirudha V. Sumant, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
No description available
Novel nanorod array substrates for high-sensitivity biomolecular sensing (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7321-3 of Conference 7321
Authors(s): Richard A. Dluhy, Jeremy Driskell, Yiping Zhao, Ralph A. Tripp, The Univ. of Georgia (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Development of diagnostic methods for rapid and sensitive identification of viruses and other biomedical pathogens is essential for the advancement of therapeutic and intervention strategies necessary to protect public health. We have investigated the use of aligned Ag nanorod arrays, prepared by oblique angle vapor deposition (OAD), as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the identification and classification of viral pathogens. The current talk will address aspects of the fundamental nanostructural design of metallic nanorod arrays and their influence on SERS enhancement, as well as the development of a spectroscopic assay for virus detection based on these unique nanostructured SERS probes. We will also present results of multivariate statistical analyses on the SERS spectra of different pathogenic species that indicate that it is possible to identify, differentiate, classify and quantify biomolecules based on their intrinsic SERS spectra.

Desktop nanofabrication with Dip Pen Nanolithography?(Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-9 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Jason R. Haaheim, Omkar A. Nafday, Jae-Won Jang, Paul L. Stiles, Tom Levesque, NanoInk, Inc. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Dip Pen Nanolithography?(DPN? is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. These capabilities naturally suggest a 揇esktop Nanofab?concept ?a system that allows users to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. We will discuss recent efforts towards patterning nanoscale conductive traces. This flexibility can be realized in a highly scalable fashion: massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk抯 2D nano PrintArray? making DPN a high-throughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation.

Electro-optical characterization of individual multiwall carbon nanotubes (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-34 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Nan Ai, Yao-Tsan Tsai, Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stefan Strauf, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising material for future high-throughput nanoelectronic devices operating on a single electron level. We fabricated field-effect structures based on individual multiwall CNTs bridged between two gold electrodes on top of a back gate. In the linear response region, a typical resistance of 10-200 KΩ is measured at 300K. Transistor operation is achieved by tuning the gate voltage. Measured photocurrents show a wavelength dependence characterizing the CNT energy levels. We will present detailed measurements of source-drain, photocurrent, and differential conductance as a function of gate voltage for CNT structures with various segment lengths.

Nanostructured surfaces for anti-biofouling/anti-microbial applications (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-36 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Chang-Hwan Choi, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States); Chang-Jin Kim, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
No description available
Nanowire microchip biosensor for chem-bio detection (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-8 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): A. Dhawan, H. Wang, M. Gerhold, Tuan Vo-Dinh, Duke Univ. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
No description available
Gold nanoparticle assays: toward single molecule unamplified DNA detection (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-22 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Remco Verdoold, Dorothee Wasserberg, Felicia Ungureanu, Jan Halamek, Rob Kooyman, Univ. Twente (Netherlands)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Light scattering and absorption properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be utilised for the detection of DNA. Binding of molecules to the GNP influences the local refractive index which can be detected as a red-shift of the GNP抯 extinction maximum. Therefore GNPs are suitable for use as nanoparticle chemical sensors. Utilizing this method it is possible to detect unamplified DNA from e.g. pathogens.
Randomly immobilised particles were visualised with a darkfield microscope. For the detection of single hybridisation events a sandwich assay was developed, utilizing a second DNA-functionalized GNP. Simultaneous observation of large numbers of GNPs provides a quantitative assay.

Bacterial SERS sensing using aperiodic metal nanoparticle arrays (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-23 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Ashwin Gopinath, Sylvanus Y. Lee, Svetlana V. Boriskina, Luca Dal Negro, Boston Univ. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
In this work, Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates consisting of periodic and aperiodic arrays of Au nanoparticles were fabricated using e-beam lithography. The Raman enhancement factors for arrays of different interparticle separations were experimentally measured utilizing pMA (p-mercapto aniline) as a SERS reporter and compared with accurate electrodynamical calculations based on GMT. Results on bacterial sensing using aperiodic arrays will be presented, showing up to 3x 105 SERS enhancement per bacterium. Our results demonstrate for the first time that lithographically defined deterministic aperiodic arrays result in SERS enhancement comparable to traditional SERS substrates obtained by chemical synthesis.

Long-distance quantum key distribution using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7320-12 of Conference 7320
Authors(s): Burm Baek, Sae Woo Nam, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
The recent advances in superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) technology enabled demonstrations of long distance QKDs over an optical fiber with a decent transmission rate. We will present an overview of our recent state-of-the-art QKD experiments on an optical fiber using a closed-cycle cryocooler, multichannel SNSPD system. Together with sophisticated optics, SNSPDs have extended the secure transmission distance to 100 km or longer in various platforms and protocols. We will discuss the optimization of the clock frequency and the gating time for a high transmission rate with the detector characteristics such as dark count rate, detection efficiency, and timing jitter.

Photon number resolving detectors at telecom wavelengths based on superconducting nanowires (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7320-13 of Conference 7320
Authors(s): Andrea Fiore, Francesco Marsili, David Bitauld, Technische Univ. Eindhoven (Netherlands); Alessandro Gaggero, Roberto Leoni, Francesco Mattioli, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR (Italy); Aleksander Divochiy, Alexander A. Korneev, Gregory N. Gol'tsman, Moscow State Pedagogical Univ. (Russian Federation)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
We present a novel nanowire-based detector structure, the Parallel Nanowire Detector (PND), which uses spatial multiplexing on a subwavelength scale to provide a photon number resolving (PNR) functionality. Counting from 1 to 6 photons was observed, with a photoresponse pulse as short as 660ps, a repetition rate up to 80 MHz and no multiplication noise. A record sensitivity is obtained at telecom wavelengths. The PND operation is quantitatively explained by electrical and optical models. The PND significantly outperforms existing PNR detectors in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, speed, and multiplication noise.

Ultralow crosstalk multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7320-14 of Conference 7320
Authors(s): Eric A. Dauler, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States); Martin J. Stevens, Burm Baek, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States); Richard Molnar, Andrew J. Kerman, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States); Sae Woo Nam, Richard P. Mirin, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States); Scott Hamliton, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States); Karl K. Berggren, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Multiple detector elements can be fabricated with sub-100-nm gaps between them and operated independently to detect photons at higher rates, to count multiple simultaneously-incident photons and to mitigate dead-time effects. The resulting low level of crosstalk is critical to using the multi-element SNSPDs for certain applications like intensity correlation measurements, and may also make SNSPDs an attractive candidate for ultralow-crosstalk photon-counting arrays.

This work was sponsored by the United States Air Force under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C- 0002. Opinions, interpretations, recommendations and conclusions are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

Progress on multipixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for optical communication (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7320-15 of Conference 7320
Authors(s): Jeffrey A. Stern, David C. Aveline, Bret J. Naylor, William H. Farr, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs) have nearly ideal properties for space-to-ground optical communication at telecommunication wavelengths (detection efficiency > 50%, jitter < 30 psec, dark counts < 1 kHz and no after pulsing.) However, the collecting area of a single pixel (typically 100 square microns) is not sufficient; these detectors have a reset time, which will limit high throughput operation, and cryogenic operation is required. JPL is currently developing a 16 and 64 pixel SNSPD system, the latter using a commercial pulse-tube refrigerator. We will present the status of this work, and discuss the engineering challenges to such an instrument.

Nanoscale electronics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-25 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): Chagaan Baatar, Office of Naval Research (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
No description available
Exploring assembly at the nanoscale (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-2 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Federico Rosei, Univ. du Qu閎ec (Canada)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
The bottom杣p approach is based on the concept of self朼ssembly of suitable nanostructures on a substrate. We explore various strategies to control assembly (both organic and inorganic) at the nanoscale. New experimental tools are presented to gain fundamental insight into the surface processes that govern growth, alloying and assembly. We can control the size and luminescence properties of semiconductor nanostructures. By exploiting inter-molecular interactions, we create nanoscale patterns with long range order. The general concept that underpins these studies is the use of surface cues, that guide molecular units upon adsorption.

EO/IR sensors development using zinc oxide and carbon nanostructures (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-3 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Ashok K. Sood, Robert A. Richwine, Yash R. Puri, Magnolia Optical Technologies, Inc. (United States); Dennis L. Polla, Nibir K. Dhar, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States); Zhonglin L. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Priyalal S. Wijewarnasuriya, Army Research Lab. (United States); Neil Goldsman, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Martin B. Soprano, U.S. Army (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
EO/IR Sensors have been developed for a variety of Military Systems Applications. These include Visible, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR Nano Sensors. The conventional SWIR Sensors using InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) can operate in 0.4 - 1.8 micron region. Similarly, MWIR Sensors use InSb and HgCdTe based FPA抯 that are sensitive in 3-5 and 8-14 micron region. DOD investments in the last 10 years have provided the necessary building blocks for the IR Sensors that are being deployed in the field.

In this paper, we will discuss recent developments and work under way to develop Next Generation nanostructure based EO/IR detectors and arrays that can potentially cover UV, Visible and IR regions of interest. The critical technologies being developed include ZnO nanostructures with wide band gap for UV detection and Carbon Nanostructures that have shown the feasibility for IR detection. Experimental results on ZnO based nanostructures demonstrate enhanced UV sensitivity and path forward for larger arrays. Similarly, recent works on carbon nanostructures have shown the feasibility of IR detection. Combining the two technologies in a sensor can provide multispectral capability.

Using dip pen techniques for synthesis of nanostructures (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-8 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Rohit Gargate, Debjyoti Banerjee, Abhay Patil, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Using scanning probe lithography techniques we have invented a process for synthesizing Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) of a single chirality. The CNT synthesis occurs at ~300-350 篊 where the growth/nucleation is controlled at desired locations and does not require any process gasses (effectively, the CNT can be synthesized in vacuum).
In this work, we developed a MEMS platform (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) for precisely controlled synthesis of CNT. Parametric studies were performed to study the effects of catalysts and growth conditions on CNT material properties.

Characterization of InP nanowires grown on non-single-crystal platforms (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-11 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Drew J. Lohn, Takehiro Onishi, Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
InP nanowires were grown by MOCVD on non-single crystal Si and structurally and
optically characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD),
Raman spectroscopy and cathode luminescence (CL). The XRD data serves as further
evidence of the prior supposition that the two types of nanowires simultaneously grown
have different crystal structures; wurtzite and zinc-blende. The Raman spectra appeared
to be those seen in bulk indium phosphide except for subtle peak shift in the TO and LO
modes. No substantial variation was observed in CL spectra collected along the growth
axis of the nanowires.

Antibody functionalized magnetic nanowires for cell purification and selective manipulation (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-50 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Ning Gao, Xiaochuan Yang, Yao-Tsan Tsai, Geh Meh Chu, Hongjun Wang, Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
In this paper, anti-CD31-functionalized Ni nanowires were used to separate and selectively manipulate MS-1 endothelial cells from the mixed MS-1 endothelial and 3T3 fibroblast cells. The purity, viability and yield of target cells were obtained. This work demonstrates that antibody-functionalized Ni nanowires provide an effective mean to purify cells. Further studies are required to uncover the effects on cell morphology and proliferation, and the interaction between functionalized nanowires and cells.

Fabrication of vertically standing metal nanowire arrays on silicon substrates using polycarbonate membrane (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-57 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Seongjin Jang, Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
We propose a new fabrication method to grow vertically aligned nanowire arrays directly on silicon substrate using commercially available PC. This technique eliminates the prerequisite procedure to coat the conductive layer on one side of the template, which is the requirement of the previously reported template assisted nanowire growth methods. In this study, vertically aligned 6 μm-long nanowires with a wide range of their diameters were successfully fabricated on silicon substrate, enabling potential mass production.

Microfabrication of nanowires-based GMR biomedical sensor (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-54 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Ramya Bellamkonda, Mangilal Agarwal, Raja S. Mannam, Daniel Carbo, James Palmer, Mark DeCoster, Despina Davis, Louisiana Tech Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors are multifunctional contactless sensors since they can be placed on a single chip with all needed electrical circuitry. This study focuses on GMR based integrated microfluidic sensor device, which can detect toxicants or cells by utilizing magnetic field and electrical voltage. The results obtained from developed nanowire based GMR device using four different control solutions: 1) polystyrene superparamagnetic beads, 2) commercially available magnetic Dynabeads, 3) secondary antibodies bound to the Dynabeads and 4) Jurkat cells bound to the Dynabeads is presented.

Nanomaterials and nanostructures research for integrated adaptive multimodal sensing (Keynote Presentation) (Keynote)
Paper 7318-33 of Conference 7318
Presenter(s): Kitt C. Reinhardt, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
An overview of AFOSR sponsored research in novel integrated multi-mode (intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase, etc.) sensor concepts will be presented. Research approach and progress achieved toward various innovative concepts for near-real time tuning of sense-mode 憇elect?and pixel location 憆ead?functions will be presented; including very recent developments in transparent electronics/interconnects and lattice-mismatched absorber materials enabling for vertically-integrated multi-modal pixel concepts. Of special interest is recent progress in absorption band-edge engineering and dynamic tuning resulting from synthesis of innovative homogeneous and heterogeneous structures based on combinations of one or more 0D, 1D, and 2D quantum and nano-based assemblies and interactions.

Nanostructures for stray light suppression (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-40 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): John G. Hagopian, James J. Butler, Stephanie A. Getty, Donald E. Jennings, Mary J. Li, Patrick A. Roman, June L. Tveekrem, Manuel A. Quijada, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
Observations of the Earth are extremely challenging; it抯 large angular extent floods scientific instruments with high flux within and adjacent to the desired field of view. Stray light is controlled by utilizing low reflectance surface treatments, using baffles and stops to limit background noise. Recent work by GSFC researchers has discovered that nanostructures are exceptionally good absorbers, with potential to provide order-of-magnitude improvement over current surface treatments and orders of magnitude system stray light control. Development of this technology will provide numerous benefits including: a.) simplification of instrument stray light controls b.) increasing observational efficiencies c.) enabling low-noise observations.

Fabrication of a nanoscale electric field sensor (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-41 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Yun T. Zheng, Todd T. King, Daniel S. Stewart, Stephanie A. Getty, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009

 

Direct detection of biomarkers, nanoparticles, bacteria, and virus in blood and other biological samples (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-5 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Michael J. Heller, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
In many research and diagnostic applications it is a significant challenge to directly isolate and identify rare cells, bacteria, virus, nanoparticles and other important biomarkers directly in blood and plasma. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) offers a particularly attractive mechanism for high resolution separation of cells and nanoparticles. Unfortunately, DEP requires considerable dilution of the sample making it impractical for diagnostic applications. We have now clearly demonstrated the DEP separation and detection of nanoparticles and DNA directly in un-diluted whole blood. This DEP detection technology is now being used for the direct detection of bacteria and virus in blood.

Gold nanoparticles for immunosensing using darkfield imaging (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-6 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Dorothee Wasserberg, Felicia Ungureanu, Jan Halamek, Vinod Subramaniam, Rob Kooyman, Univ. Twente (Netherlands)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
The extinction spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) change upon changes in the refractive index of the material surrounding them. Thus, changes in the extinction spectra of AuNPs are determined by the composition of the surrounding material providing a method to study binding events on AuNPs by observing this 慶hange of colour? We have used this effect to construct an immunosensor using darkfield imaging.
Antibodies conjugated to AuNPs could be immobilised in micro flow cells and studied using darkfield imaging. Upon immunoreaction a change of colour could be observed proving the viability of this setup as nanoparticle-based immunosensor.

Detecting Escherichia coli strains using magnetically loaded fluorescence labeled polymeric nanoparticles (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7315-1 of Conference 7315
Authors(s): Erhan Piskin, Hacettepe 躰iv. (Turkey)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Development of novel detection systems for pathogenic microorganisms is a very critical issue worldwide and attracting an increasing attention. This study attempts to develop a simple preconcentration and diagnostic test kit for detection of E. coli bacteria especially in food products which is based on magnetically loaded polymeric nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were prepared at three step process. First, 搈agnetite?nanoparticles were produced by a precipitation technique from the iron salts and were coated with an acrylate based polymer layer. In the final step D-mannose molecules (a pseudo-specific bioligand against the surface mannose receptors of E. coli strands) were covalently immobilized on the nanoparticles, which were also fluorescence-labeled. Interactions were detected by using a Fluorescence microscopy.

Advances in micro-nano technologies for imaging sensors (Keynote Presentation) (Keynote)
Paper 7318-1 of Conference 7318
Presenter(s): Nibir K. Dhar, Army Research Lab. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Please see below

Nanotube MEMS: developing extreme nanoscale devices (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-5 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Slava V. Rotkin, Lehigh Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Far from reaching its limits, MEMS technology proved itself in various applications, ranging from car acceleration and pressure sensors to space telescope shutters. Nowadays MEMS devices approach nanometer scale, promising even larger versatility, including hybrid THz-electronics, low-power memories and sensors with record sensitivity.
NEMS engineering enters, however, a new territory, full of surprises and paradoxes. The talk gives vignettes of physics of NEMS devices, both existing and theoretically proposed, utilizing nanotube materials. Natural size of a single nanotube is small enough so the quantum effects develop. We will review such novel effects which differentiate Nanotube-NEMS from their classical MEMS counterpart.

Reviews of nano-manipulators (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7343-28 of Conference 7343
Authors(s): Toshio Fukuda, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
No description available
Probing the interaction of human plasma proteins and nanoparticles (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-2 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Silvia H. Lacerda, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Protein adsorption plays a major role in the biocompatibility properties of any material. When nanoparticles enter a biological fluid, they associate to plasma proteins, which define their biological activity. NPs interaction with proteins can undergo a conformational change and formation of aggregates. That has an effect on the transport and accumulation of NPs on tissues and cells, to change the protein structure and function and be related to their toxicity. In this work we characterize the association of gold nanoparticles in the range with proteins found in the human blood plasma.

Multifunctional nanocarriers based on dendronized gold nanoparticles (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-3 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Marie-Christine Daniel, Margaret Grow, Maria Bednarek, Cesar Baeta, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Multifunctional nanocarriers present important advantages for application in cancer research. Among them, due of their nanometric size, they can passively target the tumor tissues through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Also, their ability to acquire in vivo longevity enables them to reach the tumor at higher concentration. For diagnosis purpose of pancreatic cancer, the preparation of dendronized gold nanoparticles combining targeting moieties and imaging agents were performed. The chosen targeting ligand is transferrin because of the overexpression of transferrin receptor on the pancreatic cancer cells. And the imaging agent used is a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent.

Interaction of gold nanoparticles with Hb and BSA (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-15 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Poorani G. Gananathan, Sivabalan Shanmugam, Aruna Prakasa Rao, Singaravelu Ganesan, Anna Univ. (India)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature of interaction of Hemoglobin (Hb) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the presence of metallic nanoparticles. Gold nanospheres of various size were prepared by reduction technique and the particles formation was confirmed with UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The size of the particle was calculated theoretically based on absorption spectra. Interaction studies for BSA and Hb were carried out and characterized using optical spectroscopic techniques. In absorption studies, red shift in absorption maxima of GNP is observed which is due to folding of proteins. Concentration dependant quenching of fluorescence in fluorescing amino acids of protein molecules and enhancement of fluorescence in nanoparticles were observed. The absorption and fluorescence studies reveal that the Au nanospheres enhance protein folding in biomolecules and it is an effective tool for biosensor applications.

Combining plasmonics and MEMS/NEMS for higher performance sensor systems (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-6 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Aykutlu Dana, Bilkent Univ. (Turkey)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Well defined periodic or quasi-periodic structures consisting of metal and dielectric components may be designed to exhibit plasmon resonances with high quality factors. Such resonances are very sensitive to environmental
optical properties. In this study, we investigate other means of modulating plasmon resonances, where resonances are coupled to mechanical properties of micro and nanoelectromechanical
devices. Various opto-electro-mechanical devices featuring micron and submicron features are theoretically and experimentally studied where modulation of optical signals due to plasmonic effects are used as a readout mechanism. Results suggest that plasmon resonances present a feasable and sensitive readout mechanism for micro and nanoelectromechanical systems, and can be combined with more conventional plasmon resonance based detection for superior sensing.

Protein nanoarray made by size-dependent self-assembly for detection of mouse immunoglobulin G and octamer-4 (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-5 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Phat L. Tran, Tremaine B. Powell, Keesung Kim, Jeong-Yeol Yoon, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
A protein nanoarray is created when submicro and nano beads, varying in their size and each conjugated with different proteins, self-assemble to specific locations depending on the diameter matching the surface electron beam patterns created. Protein binding is confirmed from the fluorescence attenuation and FRET upon antigen-antibody binding on the bead surface. We tested this system for mouse immunoglobulin G (positive control) and Octamer-4 (a transcription factor from embryonic stem cells). This method, called size-dependent self-assembly, allows control of the location of each type of bead, and thus, control of the location of multiple proteins.

Integrated amplification and passivation nanolayers for ultra-high-sensitivity photodetector arrays: application for LIBS and Raman spectroscopy (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-38 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Jie Yao, B&W Tek, Inc. (United States); Patrick J. Gardner, Western Carolina Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
No description available
Theoretical and experimental development of label-free biosensors based on localized plasmon resonances on nanohole and nanopillar arrays (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7322-2 of Conference 7322
Authors(s): Radislav A. Potyrailo, GE Global Research (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
In this work, we present results on theoretical and experimental development of label-free biosensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) detection. Transducers based on LSPR have several advantages over conventional Kretschmann configurations that include simple transmission measurement system design, operation with an un-polarized light source, and a simple spectral detection of color shift of the LSPR response. For highly sensitive plasmonic sensing, we employ nanohole and nanopillar arrays integrated into our fluidic components.

Portable, instantaneous, and ultrasensitive detection of micro-organisms based on interferometry and lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7306A-20 of Conference 7306A
Authors(s): Aurel Ymeti, Ostendum and Univ. Twente (Netherlands)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Future viral outbreaks are a major threat to societal and economic development throughout the world. A rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use test for viral infections is essential to prevent and to control such viral pandemics.
We have developed a rapid, ultrasensitive sensor that could be used in a handheld device to detect various viruses and measure their concentration. The sensor抯 detection principle can be extended to any biological target such as viruses, bacteria and proteins for which there are specific antibodies. The nature of the sensor enables multiplexed detection of several pathogenic species at the same time.

Aligned nanotubes in 3D nanoscale architectures formed using high-throughput manufacturable processes for electronics and sensing applications (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-10 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Anupama B. Kaul, Krikor Megerian, Paul A. von Allmen, Richard L. Baron, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Despite their unique and promising materials properties, the main impediment of carbon nanotubes for device applications has been the inability to control their orientation, chirality, or implementing manufacturable processes, especially where just single tubes are desired. We have developed manufacturable approaches to form single, vertically aligned, metallic carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 m deep trenches. Such scalable, high throughput top down fabrication techniques, integrated with the bottom up synthesis of tubes, should accelerate the development of PECVD tubes for a wide variety of applications in electronics and sensing.

Nanocrystalline Cu-doped zirconia film-coated long-period fiber grating for CO monitoring at high temperature (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7322-11 of Conference 7322
Authors(s): Xiling Tang, Jian Zhang, Junhang Dong, Univ. of Cincinnati (United States); Tao Wei, Hai Xiao, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Physically and functionally integrating materials with special properties into miniaturized single device is one of the central themes of intelligent technology development. The integrated devices can either offer enhanced functionality or realize the unique capabilities of the constituting materials that otherwise cannot be accessed by the individual material alone. Recently, we have successfully integrated various nano-structured inorganic thin films with long-period fiber grating (LPFG) as fiber optic sensors for gas measurement in different conditions. Here we report the development of Cu-doped zirconia (CDZ) nanocrystalline thin-film coated LPFG sensors for in-situ high temperature CO monitoring.

Tribological issues critical to MEMS and NEMS performance: studies of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond with other MEMS materials (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-44 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Robert W. Carpick, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
No description available
Fundamentals and application of materials integration for low-power piezoelectrically actuated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond MEMS/NEMS (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-47 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Orlando Auciello, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
No description available
Bio-inspired synthesis and laser processing of nanostructured barium titanate thin films: implications for uncooled IR sensor development (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7321-2 of Conference 7321
Authors(s): Frank E. Livingston, The Aerospace Corp. (United States); Wendy L. Sarney, Army Research Lab. (United States); Andrea R. Tao, Daniel E. Morse, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
The Army requires passive uncooled IR sensors for use in numerous vehicle and weapons platforms, including driver vision enhancement (DVE), rifle sights, seeker munitions, and unattended ground sensors (UGSs) and unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs). Recent advances in bio-inspired/biomimetic nanomaterials synthesis, laser material processing, and sensor design and performance testing, offer the opportunity to create uncooled IR detector focal-plane arrays with improved sensitivity, low thermal mass, and fast response times, along with amenability to low cost, rapid prototype manufacture. We are exploring the use of digitally-scripted, laser direct-write techniques, in conjunction with the kinetically controlled catalytic process for the growth of nanostructured multimetallic perovskites, to develop a novel approach to the fabrication of precision patterned 2-D focal-plane arrays of pyroelectric perovskite-based materials.

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with ferrocene-amino acid derivatives as electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agent mimics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-28 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Yizh Xiao, The Univ. of Western Ontario (Canada); Michael W. Petryk, Defence Research and Development Canada (Canada); Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz, The Univ. of Western Ontario (Canada)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
The interest in the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been growing with the rise in the concern over the use of such compounds in criminal terrorist attacks. They are easily produced and often have extreme toxicity. This makes it necessary to have rapid, reliable and affordable methods for the determination of CWAs and their related degradation products. Ideally, such a detection system will possess a high sensitivity and reproducibility, have a high selectivity to specific agents, will require little or no sample preparation, and will be suitable for field operations in terms of rugged design, thermal stability, low sensitivity to common contaminants, modest power requirements, and low reliance upon consumables. In our group, we focus on the electrochemical detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics using modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) supported on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. Briefly, MWCNTs are covalently or non-covalently modified with a number of redox-active ferrocene (Fc)-amino acid conjugates. The Fc-conjugate acts as redox-active component that is sensitive to intermolecular interactions. Upon expose to CWA mimics the electrical properties of the MWCNTs and the Fc group were affected significantly. Alternating current voltammetry (ACV) and capacitance-based detection offered large dynamic ranges for the detection of methylphosphonic acid (MPA), diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP), ethylmethylphosphonate (EMP) and pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) in water. The electrical measurements showed dramatic changes upon the electrostatic affinity between the negatively charged CWA mimics and the positively charged ferrocene-amino acid conjugates immobilized on MWCNTs. Electrochemical sensing with MWCNTs is shown to be a promising analytical tool for the trace-level detection of water-soluble CWA mimics.

Integration of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun for a miniaturized time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-42 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Stephanie A. Getty, Mary J. Li, Nicholas P. Costen, Larry A. Hess, Todd T. King, Patrick A. Roman, William Brinckerhoff, Paul R. Mahaffy, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
A carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron gun has been integrated as an electron impact ionization source for a miniaturized time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The cathode consists of a patterned array of CNT towers grown by catalyst-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition. An extraction grid is precisely integrated in close proximity to the emitter tips, and an anode is located at the output to monitor the ionization beam current. Objectives of the work include reduced extraction voltage during operation and enhanced current transmission. Performance of the CNT electron gun will be reported, and implications for planetary science will be discussed.

Photonic bandgap fiber with immobilized Ag nanoparticles in the core-hole channel for SERS-based measurements of aqueous solutions (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7316-42 of Conference 7316
Authors(s): Yun Han, Maung K. Khaing Oo, Svetlana A. Sukhishvili, Henry H. Du, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
We report an investigation of immobilization of Ag nanoparticles inside the core-hole structure of a photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) to make a robust platform for sensing and detection of ultra-trace analytes in aqueous solutions by means of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For the first time, SERS signal in the fiber transmission mode was recorded using Raman imaging system, which reveals propagation mode of signals in Ag nanoparticle modified liquid core PCF (LC-PCF). Sensitive and reproducible measurements of 10-7 M were achieved for both thiocyanate and R6G in water from the SERS active LC-PCF.

Development of a bionanoprobe sensing concept employing molecular recognition and multifunctional transduction (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-3 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Dimitra N. Stratis-Cullum, Army Research Lab. (United States); Nicole Whitten, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States) and Army Research Lab. (United States); Mikella E. Hankus, Army Research Lab. (United States); Brian M. Cullum, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County (United States); Paul M. Pellegrino, Army Research Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
In this work, we are exploring enhanced selectivity through targeted recognition at the molecular level, in combination with SERS and multifunctional spectroscopic transduction. Water-stable SERS substrates which are modified with nucleic acid aptamer functionality are designed to specifically recognize a target threat or stimulant material. We will report on development progress towards a hybrid molecular recognition with SERS/Fluorescence nanoprobe system including the optimization, fabrication, and spectroscopic analysis of water-stable substrate. The feasibility of this single-step switching architecture for hazard material detection will also be discussed.

Development of a THz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer for standoff detection of explosive material (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7311-3 of Conference 7311
Authors(s): Heiko Richter, Alexei D. Semenov, Heinz-Wilhelm H黚ers, Sergey Pavlov, Deutsches Zentrum f黵 Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany); Lukas Mahler, Alessandro Tredicucci, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (Italy); Harvey E. Beere, David A. Ritchie, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Michele Ortolani, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR (Italy); Ulrich Schade, BESSY GmbH (Germany); Konstantin S. Ilin, Michael Siegel, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
The terahertz (THz) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum provides specific spectroscopic information for substance identification. It has been shown that the spectral features of explosive materials might be used for detection and identification at stand-off distances. We will report on the development of a THz spectrometer for explosive detection and identification. The system is based on THz quantum cascade lasers working at different frequencies. These are used for illumination of the object under test. The reflected and backscattered radiation from the object under test is detected with a sensitive heterodyne receiver. The concept of the system and first results will be presented.

Terahertz reflectance spectra of pure explosive materials at normal and oblique incidence (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7311-29 of Conference 7311
Authors(s): Michele Ortolani, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR (Italy) and BESSY GmbH (Germany); Ulrich Schade, BESSY GmbH (Germany); Jongseok Lee, BESSY GmbH (Germany) and ERATO-MF (Japan); Heinz-Wilhelm H黚ers, Heiko Richter, Deutsches Zentrum f黵 Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
We studied the terahertz reflectance spectra of explosives at both
quasinormal and oblique incidence by Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The optical constants of
the explosives RDX and PETN were determined from the reflectance spectra of pure optically flat pellets and clear spectral signatures were found in the 0.5? THz range. In the case of a realistic surface roughness of several tens of microns, the observation of the spectral signatures at quasinormal incidence is hindered by the specular reflectance roll-off at terahertz frequencies. On increasing the angle of incidence, the roll-off occurred at higher frequency and the surface roughness was optically measured.

Novel configuration coupling surface plasmon resonance and electrokinetic separations for quantitative monitoring of biomolecules (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-16 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Karl S. Booksh, Michael R. Malone, Univ. of Delaware (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
A flexible sensor platform combining label free detection through localized surface plasmon resonance imaging and electro kinetic based separations of complex biofluids is under development. The combination of these two techniques will greatly enhance the capabilities of remote biosensing for clinical analysis. The separation of medically relevant proteins from the milieu of different biofliuds and the potential for pre concentration of analytes through electro focusing methods will increase the accuracy of measurement made through traditional SPR methodologies. The label free detection of Surface Plasmon Resonance eliminates the need for sample preparation. The hybrid platform involves Imaging spectra from Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance effects on Nanoparticles embedded in the sample channels. Nanoparticles with tetrahedron and spherical geometries have been characterized.

Multichannel surface-enhanced Raman scattering probe based on photonic crystal fiber (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7316-39 of Conference 7316
Authors(s): He Yan, Jie Liu, Zhonghuan Zhang, Mingshan Li, Tsinghua Univ. (China); Lantian Hou, Yanshan Univ. (China); Changxi Yang, Tsinghua Univ. (China)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
A multi-channel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe based on a multi-core photonic crystal fiber (MCPCF) is investigated. The MCPCF contains seven hollow core PCFs those can guide light respectively, providing seven channels for sensing. Analyte solution mixed with the silver nanoparticles enters each core via the capillary effect. The excitation light transmitting in each hollow core can interact with the analyte and the silver nanoparticles in the holes directly which promises higher efficiency of light usage. Accurate results could be achieved with minimal instability from the multi-data of the analyte. The experimental results show that our probe has a good performance on Rhodamine 6G molecules.

High-strength transparent spinel with fine, unimodal grain size (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7302-16 of Conference 7302
Authors(s): Sean M. Sweeney, Milivoj K. Brun, Timothy J. Yosenick, Anteneh Kebbede, Mohan Manoharan, GE Global Research (United States); Lisa P. Franks, U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Ctr. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Spinel (MgAl2O4) is a good candidate material for transparent armor and IR window applications. Traditionally, transparent spinel has suffered from poor strength and difficult polishing owing to its large, bimodal grain structure. Starting from a spinel nanopowder, spinel ceramics with a grain size of less than 2 microns have been made with better than 80% in-line transmittance at 632 nm wavelength for 3/8?thick samples. A ring-on-ring test has been used to measure biaxial flexural strength on samples machined to 0.8 mm thickness. The average strength was found to exceed 480 MPa.

Multispectral EO/IR sensor model for evaluating UV, visible, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR system performance (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7300-17 of Conference 7300
Authors(s): Ashok K. Sood, Robert A. Richwine, Yash R. Puri, Magnolia Optical Technologies, Inc. (United States); Nibir K. Dhar, Dennis L. Polla, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States); Priyalal S. Wijewarnasuriya, Army Research Lab. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Next Generation EO/IR Sensors using Nanostructures are being developed for a variety of Defense Applications. In addition, large area IRFPA抯 are being developed on low cost substrates. In this paper, we will discuss the capabilities of a EO/IR Sensor Model to provide a robust means for comparing performance of infrared FPA抯 and Sensors that can operate in the visible and infrared spectral bands that coincide with the atmospheric windows ?UV, Visible-NIR (0.4-1.8), SWIR (2.0-2.5), MWIR (3-5), and LWIR (8-14).

The model will be able to predict sensor performance and also functions as an assessment tool for single-color and for multi-color imaging. The detector model can also characterize ZnO, Si, SiGe, InGaAs, InSb, HgCdTe and Nanostructure based Sensors. The model can predict performance by also placing the specific FPA into an optical system, evaluates system performance (NEI, NETD, MRTD, and SNR). This model has been used as a tool for predicting performance of state-of-the-art detector arrays and nanostructure arrays under development. Results of the analysis will be presented for various targets for each of the focal plane technologies for a variety of missions.

Hand-held, highly reliable, selective, direct, and reagentless detection (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-34 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Melik C. Demirel, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
We developed a wireless, highly accurate, handheld, real time sensor for chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection. The new handheld laser technology provides significant advantages over traditional methods based on the nanostructured detection-chips using polymer surface coatings technology and a handheld Raman spectroscopy analyzer. Our chip and hand-held sensor provide highly sensitive, reproducible and uniform detections of CBE agents for civilian and military security problems. Our technology reduces the time (<10 sec) and cost (<$5/sample) for CBE detection with potential improvements in detection specificity and sensitivity at low laser powers (<1mW).

Bead-based assays for biodetection: from flow-cytometry to microfluidics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7306A-19 of Conference 7306A
Authors(s): Richard M. Ozanich, Kate Antolick, Cindy Bruckner-Lea, Kyle J. Bunch, Brian Dockendorff, Jay W. Grate, Cynthia Warner, Marvin G. Warner, Pacific Northwest National Lab. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches to detection of biological species will be described: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of chemokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich complex. Unique methods and automated fluidic systems for trapping functionalized microbeads that allow samples and assay reagents to be efficiently perfused over a micro-column of beads, resulting in faster and more sensitive assays will be described. Automated fluidic assays were compared to 揵atch?assays conducted in microfuge tubes for human chemokines and botulinum neurotoxin Type A heavy chain fragment (BoNT/A-HC). The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in assay sensitivity/speed. Preliminary results also indicate the fluidic system can preconcentrate trace target analytes from large volume samples. The automated fluidic platform can readily be adapted to other target analytes by simply using different functionalized microbeads and reagents. In addition, this platform can be integrated with various types of detectors. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (> 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Initial work has demonstrated separation and detection of two different fluorescently-labeled magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) in a microfluidic device. An initial microfluidic device was tested using a fluorescent sandwich immunoassay. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100抯 of picomolar range (10抯 of micrograms per liter) for BoNT/A-HC without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach. Significant improvements in limits of detection are expected. Video taping NP capture and release was used to improve understanding of the process and revealed interesting NP behavior (i.e., NP release results in uniform and complete dissolution/deaggregation thought to be the result of rapid repulsion of NPs that were tightly captured together in a microfluidic channel). The potential to exploit this unique behavior will be investigated in future research.

Colour camera: a new detection method for protein binding (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-4 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Felicia Ungureanu, Jan Halamek, Remco Verdoold, Rob Kooyman, Univ. Twente (Netherlands)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Here we report on a new detection method of binding events of analytes to functionalized gold nanoparticle using a standard colour camera attached to a darkfield microscopy setup. This setup is capable of parallel detection of the spectral shifts of thousands of 60 nm antibody-functionalized gold spheres as a result of binding events of protein analyte molecules. The results obtained with the colour camera compare well with the scatter microspectroscopy studies. This setup can be the base for multiplexing and quantification.

Modified ZSM-5 zeolite film-integrated fiber optic sensors for ammonia detection (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-11 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Xiling Tang, Zhong Tang, Seok-Jhin Kim, Junhang Dong, Univ. of Cincinnati (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Recently, we have successfully integrated the crystalline nanoporous zeolite thin films with various structured-optical fibers to construct fiber optic sensors for chemical detections. Here we report the development of surface modified ZSM-5 zeolite crystal thin-film coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensors for in-situ detection of ammonia (NH3) in complex gas mixtures. The sensor was fabricated by growing MFI-type zeolite thin film (i.e. ZSM-5 with Si/Al ratio of 15 ~ 20) on the optical fiber grating by in situ hydrothermal crystallization. The sensor measures ammonia concentration by monitoring the molecular adsorption-induced shift of LPFG resonant wavelength (R) in near infrared (IR) region.

Sub-millimeter resolution laser ranging at 9.3 kilometers using temporally stretched, frequency chirped pulses from a mode locked laser (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7339-16 of Conference 7339
Authors(s): Mohammad Umar Piracha, Dat Nguyen, College of Optics & Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Tolga Yilmaz, Raydiance, Inc. (United States); Dimitrios Mandridis, College of Optics & Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States); David Gaudiosi, Raydiance, Inc. (United States); Peter J. Delfyett, Jr., College of Optics & Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
A chirped fiber Bragg grating was used to temporally stretch picosecond pulses from a 20MHz passively mode locked fiber laser to a few nanoseconds duration. This allows the generation of stretched pulses of higher output power if the temporal duration of the input pulse is longer than the storage time of the external amplifier. Moreover, non-linear effects can also be avoided. This technique is suitable for ladar applications where pulses with large powers are required for sufficient received signal detection. A fiber based interferometeric arrangement was used for interfering the return signal from the target with the reference signal to realize a coherent heterodyne detection scheme. In the RF domain, the detected heterodyned frequency shifts as the object distance is changed. Sub-millimeter resolution was observed with 9.3km of fiber delay.

Development of optical antenna-coupled Si CMOS-based detector at 30 THz (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7311-11 of Conference 7311
Authors(s): JeongSun S. Moon, HRL Labs., LLC (United States); Kyung-Ah Son, Goutam Chattopadhyay, David Z. Ting, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
In this paper, we will present a world-first Si CMOS-based antenna-coupled detector, designed for 10 m (30 THz) photon detection. The antenna-coupled Si LWIR detectors are fabricated with a highly-efficient antenna design, and integrated with nanoscale Si MOS diodes. Electromagnetic simulation of the antenna shows an efficient coupling to 30 THz radiation. Measured LWIR detection at room temperature will be presented and its mechanism will be discussed.

Chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-7 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Mark D. Allendorf, Ronald J. T. Houk, A. Alec Talin, Sandia National Labs. (United States); Leanne Andruszkiewicz, Peter J. Hesketh, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are nanoporous materials with structures tailorable to favor the adsorption of specific analytes. Their non-rigid nature leads to changes in their structure which, if coupled to a microcantilever, can be detected via the stress induced at an interface. We integrated a MOF thin film with a microcantilever and show that surface stresses can be converted to mechanical energy to create a responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. We discuss MOF properties, integration with MEMS sensors, gas testing, and computational modeling. MOFs hold great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes.

Stand-off detection of organic samples using filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7306A-37 of Conference 7306A
Authors(s): James Martin, Matthieu Baudelet, Matthew Weidman, Matthew K. Fisher, Candice Bridge, Christopher G. Brown, Michael Sigman, Martin C. Richardson, College of Optics & Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Paul J. Dagdigian, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
As an alternative to focused nanosecond pulses for stand-off LIBS detection of energetic materials, we use self-channeled femtosecond pulses (35 fs, 25 mJ) from a Ti:Sapphire laser to produce filaments up to 50 meters and create a plasma on energetic material samples.
Light collection challenge is done via an off朼xis Newtonian telescope (30 cm of diameter and 190 cm focal length). Signal characterizations are made for several distances of detection.
Finally, sample detection and discrimination from background signal, are achieved through chemometrics signal processing to improve the organic material detection.

New high-gain detectors for active imaging (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7298-106 of Conference 7298
Authors(s): Frederic P. Pistone, Philippe M. Tribolet, Michel M. Zecri, Xavier Lefoul, SOFRADIR (France); G閞ard L. Dest閒anis, Yohan Rothman, Commissariat ? l'Energie Atomique (France)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
New applications require high sensitivity infrared (IR) sensors in order to detect very low incident fluxes. Laser gated imaging has, in particular, additional specific needs. IR sensors for this type of application are synchronized with eye-safe lasers, and have to detect a weak signal backscattered from the target on the order of 10 photons per pulse. They also have to be able to operate with a very short integration time, typically one hundred nanoseconds, in order to gate the backscattered signal around the target. In partnership with Sofradir, CEA/LETI (France) has developed high quality HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes satisfying these requirements. In parallel, specific studies have been carried out at the Read-Out Circuit level to develop optimized architectures. Thanks to these advances, a new Integrated Dewar Detector Cooler Assembly has been developed. This new product is the first step in a road-map to address low flux infrared sensors in the next few years.

Experimental characterization of mm-wave detection by a micro-array of Golay cells (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7309-18 of Conference 7309
Authors(s): Douglas Denison, Michael E. Knotts, Georgia Tech Research Institute (United States); Vladimir Tsukruk, Michael E. McConney, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
We present experimental results for an uncooled imaging focal plane array technology that consists of a novel polymer/nanoparticle monolayer/polymer layered membrane suspended over a micro-fabricated array of cavities. This Golay-like device demonstrates an NEP of 300 nW/sqrt(Hz) at 105 GHz for a 19-layer membrane suspended over an array of 80 micron diameter cavities. Calculations of membrane sensitivity show that this NEP could be reduced to ~ 100 pW/sqrt(Hz) with enlarged cavity diameters on the order of 600 microns.

Electrospun sol-gel fibers for FRET-based sensing (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-17 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Jasenka Memisevic, Lela Riley, Sheila A. Grant, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States)
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009
A fluorescent platform mesh was constructed by utilizing electrospinning techniques. Incorporating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, as well as fluorescence dyes in the sol-gel, resulted in the formation of a dye-doped fibrous mesh. After formation of the fibers, pore-creating techniques were applied, resulting in a high surface area material. Fluorescently labeled antibodies were immobilized onto the nanoporous fibrous mesh, which created a highly responsive FRET immunosensor, with the fluorescent fiber platform donating energy to the acceptor on the antibody. Addition of the Helicobacter pathogen causes measurable FRET. Results show that the sensor exhibits high sensitivity and reliability due to the increased surface area.

A multimodal technique for the quantification of dynamic stress (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7313-26 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Vishal Saxena, Univ. of Southern California (United States) and AppWave (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
We report a multimodal optical technique based on near infrared spectroscopy and mid infrared imaging as a non-invasive, in-vivo tool for monitoring the vascular status of flexor pollicis brevis (thenar muscle of hand), and the physiological changes that occur during physical exercise. A technique based on the combination of near infrared spectroscopy technique namely; steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS: 650-850 nanometers) is applied for monitoring changes in tissue blood oxygen saturation, while simultaneous mid infrared imaging (MIRI: 8-12 micrometers) provides information about the thermodynamics of heat dissipation during prolonged physical exercise. The proposed technique is likely to provide insight into muscle physiology, therapeutic response and treatment.

A quantitative measure for information content in antenna array radiation patterns (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7310-11 of Conference 7310
Authors(s): Karan D. Mohan, Mohammad A. Khan, Amin N. Dharamsi, Old Dominion Univ. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
We present a novel approach to quantifying and optimizing the amount of information available in radiation patterns of antenna arrays. The technique is applicable on a broad scale, with applications in infrared, nanophotonics and other non-intrusive sensing techniques. We investigate the amount of information lost due to distortions and noise in the environment, and due to other limitations of the detector system, based on Shannon抯 information principles. While we focus on the information content, in bits, of antenna array radiation patterns, the method presented is general and may be applied to a variety of distributions.

Mid-IR transparent materials based on rare-earth aluminate glass ceramics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7302-41 of Conference 7302
Authors(s): Anatoly Rosenflanz, Jean Tangeman, Amy Barnes, Steven Lenius, 3M Co. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Rapid quenching followed by viscous sintering within a range of stability of a supercooled liquid (i.e. between Tg and Tx) has been utilized to prepare bulk aluminate glasses modified by rare-earths and, optionally, zirconia. When kinetically relaxed during re-heating, such glasses hypernucleate, forming nanostructured glass-ceramics. In this presentation we report utilization of this technique for preparation of mid-IR transparent materials with durabilities similar to spinel, ALON and sapphire. The existence of an intermediate 搒oft? glassy stage is however perceived as an advantage over these materials due to shaping and finishing ability via molding or direct machining. Recent advances in transparencies will also be described.

Fully printed phased-array antenna for space communications (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7318-58 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Maggie Y. Chen, Omega Optics, Inc. (United States); Xuejun Lu, Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell (United States); Harish Subbaraman, Ray T. Chen, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
In this paper, we report a fully printed 5.6GHz flexible phased array antenna. The PAA is printed out at room temperature on 100μm thick Kapton substrate. The FET switch in the phase shifter for the 2-bit 2-element phased-array antenna is based on carbon nanotube network in solution, which has carrier mobility as high as 46770cm2/V晄. The FET switch exhibits a switching speed of 0.2ns and works well for 5.6GHz RF signal. The small signal modulation and spectrum linearity is measured at 5GHz, versus the state-of-art flexible FET operating frequency of 52MHz. The switching voltage we used is 2V, while the state-of-art flexible FET has a gate voltage around 50V.

Using of SAMs technology for label-free detection of pathogenic micro-organisms (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7318-15 of Conference 7318
Authors(s): Erhan Piskin, Hacettepe 躰iv. (Turkey)
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009
Bioanalytical systems based on optical detection of biosensing elements could find wide applications in DNA analysis, drug discovery, medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring as well as in protection against bioterrorism. Here, we will demonstrate that our experience related to preparation of SAMs having various ending groups (i.e., amino, thiol, methyl, hydroxyl) on the different solid substrates and also different lithography techniques based on photolithography and template synthesis method using nano-structured anodic alumina films for the patterning of surfaces to detect microorganisms (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Avian influenza) were investigated by surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Ellipsometric biosensors.

Mass fabrication tolerances for integrated optical sensors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7322-6 of Conference 7322
Authors(s): Jeroen A. W. Van Houwelingen, Mirvais Yousefi, Michael Engelmann, Ruud Schmits, Hans van den Berg, TNO (Netherlands)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Research in Integrated Nano Photonics (INP) has made great progress in recent years. One of the driving forces behind the research is the large potential that INP based devices have as ultra compact and highly sensitive sensors. We will present the manufacturing possibilities and challenges of using CMOS standards to fabricate Silicon on insulator (SOI) INP devices. In particular an analysis of edge tolerance and influence is presented as well as the manufacturing of a basic ring-resonator structure that is suitable for sensing.

Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7302-40 of Conference 7302
Authors(s): Philip Lam, L2 Tech, Inc. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
An innovative 3-5 micron infrared-transparent glass ceramic material is developed to have ultra-low thermal expansion over a wide temperature range and high thermal-shock resistance to be used as windows and domes for high speed flight. The material is an inorganic, non-porous glass ceramic, characterized by crystalline phases of evenly distributed nano-crystals of negative thermal expansion within a residual glass phase.

Synthesis and properties of eye-safe sesquioxide single crystal and transparent ceramic laser sources (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7325-3 of Conference 7325
Authors(s): Colin D. McMillen, John M. Ballato, Joseph W. Kolis, Baris Kokuoz, Basak Y. Kokuoz, Karn Serivalsatit, Exley McCormick, Clemson Univ. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Recently we have developed novel approaches to the preparation of single crystals and transparent ceramics based on scandia, yttria and lutetia for use as high average power eye-safe laser sources. We have demonstrated the hydrothermal single crystal growth of optically clear single crystals of Sc2O3, Lu2O3 and Er:Sc2O3 having dimensions up to 1 cm. Additionally, we will present novel processing and sintering routes that we have used to prepare yttria and Er:Y2O3 transparent ceramics having nanoscale grain sizes. When possible, direct comparisons of the properties of these single crystal and transparent ceramic hosts will be presented.

Toward in-situ detection of PAHs trace in seawater using SERS-active sensors (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7312-12 of Conference 7312
Authors(s): Olivier P閞on, Emmanuel Rinnert, Michel Lehaitre, Florent Colas, Chantal Comp鑢e, French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (France)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
The development of in-situ sensors suitable for environmental analysis in sea-water is proposed. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates based on gold nanostructures were synthesized to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In such an approach, PAHs were preferentially immobilized on the hydrophobic sensor surface and naphthalene or pyrene were detected at 10ppb in artificial sea-water with a low incident laser power (~0.1mW) and a short integration time (10s). SERS substrates can be integrated to our home-made in-situ Raman spectrometer coupled to a microfluidic system. Such a device is now ready to use to confirm PAHs detection during offshore experiments.

Mid-IR intracavity OPO (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7325-16 of Conference 7325
Authors(s): Santosh N. Pisharody, Yusong Yin, Photonics Industries International, Inc. (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009

LIDAR measurements of biological warfare simulants (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-9 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): David M. Brown, Evan P. Thrush, Karen M. Siegrist, Michael E. Thomas, Alison Carr, Nathan T. Boggs, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
A chamber aerosol LIDAR is being developed to perform well-controlled tests of optical scattering characteristics of biological aerosols, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), for validation of optical scattering models. The 1.064 祄, sub-nanosecond pulse LIDAR allows for sub-meter resolution of particle depolarization ratio at 1 kHz repetition rate. Automated data acquisition and analysis provide real-time analysis or recording. Tests administered within the refereed 1 cubic meter chamber can provide high quality near-field backscatter measurements devoid of interference from entrance and exit window reflections. Initial chamber measurements of BT depolarization ratio at a variety of concentrations are presented.

Porphyrin-embedded organosilicas for detection and decontamination (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7306A-14 of Conference 7306A
Authors(s): Brandy J. Johnson, Brian J. Melde, Paul T. Charles, Anthony P. Malanoski, Michael A. Dinderman, Naval Research Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Porphyrin-embedded materials (PEMs) combine tunable binding selectivity, high surface area, and low materials density of a highly ordered pore network with the unique properties of porphyrins. Porphyrins are a family of large, nearly planar molecules which strongly absorb visible light and fluoresce intensely. They are highly sensitively to alterations in their immediate environment making porphyrins valuable as indicators for small molecule contaminants. They can be synthesized with high surface areas, uniform pore dimensions, and ordered nanostructures while incorporating organic bridging groups in the pore walls that may be tuned for adsorption of a specific class of compounds. The materials can be stored under ambient conditions and offer exceptional shelf-life.

Third-order nonlinear optical properties and its limiting behavior of polyaniline/SiO2 composite materials (Poster Presentation)
Paper 7325-32 of Conference 7325
Authors(s): Yun-Dong Zhang, Lei Ma, Ping Yuan, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Polyaniline are promising molecules which present very attractive properties for nonlinear optical applications. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline/SiO2 (PANI/SiO2) composite materials were studied using the single beam Z-scan technique. These molecules exhibit a strong reverse saturable absorption with a doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser pulses with nanosecond at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refractive index (n2) was retrieved by fitting experimental data. And their optical limiting performance has been investigated. The result show the polyaniline/SiO2 (PANI/SiO2) composite materials have good nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting performance.

Smart dust infrared sensors for standoff explosives detection (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-47 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Alexey E. Kovalev, Matthew G. Bray, Theresa S. Mayer, Douglas H. Werner, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
We demonstrate a prototype sensor based on a new eye-safe detection strategy with the potential to report the presence trace explosives from standoff distances of up to 100 m. The method detects the reflected infrared radiation from groups of micron-sized chemically-sensitized metallodielectric nanostructures. Specifically, the sensors change from reflecting to absorbing nearly 100% of the incident probe beam radiation over a narrow band of mid-IR wavelengths when explosive vapor is present. This strategy is not limited to the detection to explosives, but can also be used to detect other threats by modifying the chemically-sensitive layers of the nanostructure.

Supercontinuum lidar measurements of atmospheric constituents (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7323-32 of Conference 7323
Authors(s): Perry S. Edwards, David M. Brown, Andrea M. Wyant, Zhiwen Liu, C. Russell Philbrick, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Extending our developments of a previously reported supercontinuum lidar system has increased the capability for measuring long path atmospheric concentrations. The multi-wavelength capability of the supercontinuum laser source has the advantage of obtaining multiple line differential absorption spectra measurements to determine the concentrations of various atmospheric constituents. Simulation software such as MODTRAN TM 5 has provided the means to compare and evaluate the experimental measurements. Improvements to the nanosecond supercontinuum laser fiber coupled transceiver system have allowed open atmospheric path lengths greater than 600 m. Analyses of species concentrations attained from horizontal paths over a heavy use urban area are presented.

Atmosphere issues in detection of explosives and organic residues (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-50 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Christopher G. Brown, Matthieu Baudelet, Candice Bridge, Matthew K. Fisher, Michael Sigman, Martin C. Richardson, College of Optics & Photonics, Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Paul J. Dagdigian, The Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
Studies have shown that ionized atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen during the plasma formation interfere in a LIBS analysis under atmosphere . This becomes important when detecting explosives, because of their higher concentrations of nitrogen and oxygen compared to the carbon and hydrogen in non-energetic materials.
This study makes a comparison of LIBS analysis on organic thin residues on a non-metallic substrate by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in air and argon atmospheres. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the influence of atmosphere for sample discrimination via the emission spectra and validated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves.

Gigahertz bandwidth photon counting (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7320-5 of Conference 7320
Authors(s): William H. Farr, Jonathan W. Gin, Danh H. Nguyen, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
Early applications driving the development of single photon detectors simply required low noise performance with kiloHertz and lower count rate requirements and minimal or no timing resolution. Newer applications can require photon counting at flux rates into megaphoton or gigaphoton per second regimes coupled with sub-nanosecond timing accuracy. We have developed and implemented systems for deep space optical communications to both characterize gigaHertz bandwidth single photon detectors as well as process photon count signals at rates beyond 100 megaphotons per second to implement communications links at data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. We shall review our methods and characterization results for detectors such as intensified photodiodes, superconducting nanowire detectors, and negative avalanche feedback photon counters.

Super-bright, stable, reproducible, SERS biotags for simultaneous identification of multiple biomarkers (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7321-1 of Conference 7321
Authors(s): Martin Moskovits, Norbert Reich, Gary Braun, SeungJoon Lee, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Biotags based on polymer coated, silver nanoparticle aggregates tethered with bifunctional ligands were developed that produce surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) with intensities exceeding most intense fluorophores. The narrow SERS band widths allows the spectra of a dozen or more SERS bio-tags to be deconvoluted out of a single spectrum. The precise nano-engineering of these tags and the careful control of their synthesis produce nanosystems with highly reproducible properties and great stability ?solving a long-standing problem with SERS substrates. Their use in extra- and intra-cellular applications and as in vivo imaging agents will be illustrated.

Mechanisms of frictional adhesion in biological adhesion and locomotion (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7321-12 of Conference 7321
Authors(s): Jacob Israelachvili, Kimberly L. Turner, Hongbo Zeng, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Noshir Pesika, Tulane Univ. (United States); Boxin Zhao, Univ. of Waterloo (Canada); Sathya S. Chary, John Tamelier, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and other techniques we have carried out various experiments at the nano- to macro-scales to measure the forces between biological surfaces and non-biological substrates to establish how certain animals, from geckos to mussels, adhere to surfaces under a wide range of conditions (both in air and seawater), and especially how rapid adhesion (sticking) can be followed by rapid detachment to allow for rapid movement (running) on walls and ceilings.
We describe the very different processes occurring on attachment and detachment, which appear to involve the whole hierarchy of length scales of animals. We consider whether there is some general model for the biomechanics and biodynamics of apparently quite different biological systems, and describe our attempts to develop a process that mimics biological systems.

MEMS-based warm gas thruster system for CubeSat orbital maneuver applications (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7331-15 of Conference 7331
Authors(s): Po-Hao A. Huang, Univ. of Arkansas (United States); Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States)
Date: Monday, 13 April 2009
This paper reports the ongoing development effort combining the previously developed attitude control thruster system with a high pressure piezoelectric microvalve. The goal is to provide orbital maneuver capabilities for future Air Force and NASA nano/pico-satellite missions, such as inspector satellites for post launch diagnostics, sparse array antennas, field measurements of space weather events, and the calibration of atmospheric drag in the thermosphere. The piezoelectric microvalve used is low power (3mW), high speed (30祍), and high pressure (70 bar absolute). The target warm gas Newton level propulsion system dry mass is 200 grams and with a volume of <100 cm3.

Fast detection and identification of bacteria in potable water (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7304-5 of Conference 7304
Authors(s): Alois Friedberger, Ulrich Reidt, Christoph Heller, Andreas Helwig, Gerhard M黮ler, EADS Deutschland GmbH (Germany)
Date: Tuesday, 14 April 2009
The quality and safety of drinking water is of major importance for human life. Current analytical methods for viable bacteria in potable water are time consuming due to a required cultivation step. Fast detection of pathogenic microorganisms with high sensitivity and selectivity is still a challenge. Under normal circumstances, the concentration of pathogens is extremely low; thus an enrichment step is necessary before analysis of the water sample. We use micromechanical filters with nano-sized pores to capture and enrich bacteria and fungi on the filter surface and making them accessible to different detection methods.

Biomolecular detection using optofluidics (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7322-1 of Conference 7322
Authors(s): David Erickson, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
In this talk I will discuss two new technologies we are developing that fuse traditional microfluidic elements with sub-wavelength scale nanophotonic structures to create sensitive, specific, and highly parallel 搊ptofluidic? biomolecular sensors. The first approach I will discuss will involves the use of high-quality factor, low mode volume optical resonators which rely on detecting minute changes in refractive index following a molecular binding event. Following this I will also discuss our preliminary efforts to develop devices for on-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based biomolecular detection. In both cases preliminary data will be presented demonstrating serotype specific detection of Dengue virus. Throughout the talk I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches in the context of traditional label free technologies (such as surface plasmon resonance) and other emerging nano-technological approaches.

New microcavity substrates for enhancing Raman signals of microscopic samples (Paper Presentation)
Paper 7313-14 of Conference 7313
Authors(s): Shiv K. Sharma, Anupam K. Misra, Lori Kamemoto, Ava Dykes, Tayro Acosta, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States)
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009
A novel method for improving the detection limit of normal Raman spectra of chemicals in pico-liters volume will be presented. A micro-cavity substrate uses various mechanisms that collectively improve the normal Raman signal from the sample without SERS. The micro-cavity substrate enhances the entire Raman spectra of the molecules under investigation and maintains the relative intensity ratios of the various Raman bands. It will be further shown that micro-cavities coated with nano films of gold and silver takes advantage of both SERS and micro-cavity method and significantly improve the detection limits of samples.

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In this talk I will discuss two new technologies we are developing that fuse traditional microfluidic elements with sub-wavelength scale nanophotonic structures to create sensitive, specific, and highly parallel 搊ptofluidic? biomolecular sensors. The first approach I will discuss will involves the use of high-quality factor, low mode volume optical resonators which rely on detecting minute changes in refractive index following a molecular binding event. Following this I will also discuss our preliminary efforts to develop devices for on-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based biomolecular detection. In both cases preliminary data will be presented demonstrating serotype specific detection of Dengue virus. Throughout the talk I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches in the context of traditional label free technologies (such as surface plasmon resonance) and other emerging nano-technological approaches.

Protein nanoarray made by size-dependent self-assembly for detection of mouse immunoglobulin G and octamer-4
Paper 7313-5 of Conference 7313
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009

Author(s): Phat L. Tran, Tremaine B. Powell, Keesung Kim, Jeong-Yeol Yoon, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)

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A protein nanoarray is created when submicro and nano beads, varying in their size and each conjugated with different proteins, self-assemble to specific locations depending on the diameter matching the surface electron beam patterns created. Protein binding is confirmed from the fluorescence attenuation and FRET upon antigen-antibody binding on the bead surface. We tested this system for mouse immunoglobulin G (positive control) and Octamer-4 (a transcription factor from embryonic stem cells). This method, called size-dependent self-assembly, allows control of the location of each type of bead, and thus, control of the location of multiple proteins.

New microcavity substrates for enhancing Raman signals of microscopic samples
Paper 7313-14 of Conference 7313
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009

Author(s): Shiv K. Sharma, Anupam K. Misra, Lori Kamemoto, Ava Dykes, Tayro Acosta, Univ. of Hawai'i (United States)

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A novel method for improving the detection limit of normal Raman spectra of chemicals in pico-liters volume will be presented. A micro-cavity substrate uses various mechanisms that collectively improve the normal Raman signal from the sample without SERS. The micro-cavity substrate enhances the entire Raman spectra of the molecules under investigation and maintains the relative intensity ratios of the various Raman bands. It will be further shown that micro-cavities coated with nano films of gold and silver takes advantage of both SERS and micro-cavity method and significantly improve the detection limits of samples.

Nanocrystalline Cu-doped zirconia film-coated long-period fiber grating for CO monitoring at high temperature
Paper 7322-11 of Conference 7322
Date: Thursday, 16 April 2009

Author(s): Xiling Tang, Jian Zhang, Junhang Dong, Univ. of Cincinnati (United States); Tao Wei, Hai Xiao, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States)

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Physically and functionally integrating materials with special properties into miniaturized single device is one of the central themes of intelligent technology development. The integrated devices can either offer enhanced functionality or realize the unique capabilities of the constituting materials that otherwise cannot be accessed by the individual material alone. Recently, we have successfully integrated various nano-structured inorganic thin films with long-period fiber grating (LPFG) as fiber optic sensors for gas measurement in different conditions. Here we report the development of Cu-doped zirconia (CDZ) nanocrystalline thin-film coated LPFG sensors for in-situ high temperature CO monitoring.

Nanomaterials and nanostructures research for integrated adaptive multimodal sensing (Keynote Presentation)
Paper 7318-33 of Conference 7318
Date: Friday, 17 April 2009

Author(s): Kitt C. Reinhardt, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (United States)

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An overview of AFOSR sponsored research in novel integrated multi-mode (intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase, etc.) sensor concepts will be presented. Research approach and progress achieved toward various innovative concepts for near-real time tuning of sense-mode 憇elect?and pixel location 憆ead?functions will be presented; including very recent developments in transparent electronics/interconnects and lattice-mismatched absorber materials enabling for vertically-integrated multi-modal pixel concepts. Of special interest is recent progress in absorption band-edge engineering and dynamic tuning resulting from synthesis of innovative homogeneous and heterogeneous structures based on combinations of one or more 0D, 1D, and 2D quantum and nano-based assemblies and interactions.

EO/IR sensors development using zinc oxide and carbon nanostructures
Paper 7318-3 of Conference 7318
Date: Wednesday, 15 April 2009

Author(s): Ashok K. Sood, Robert A. Richwine, Yash R. Puri, Magnolia Optical Technologies, Inc. (United States); Dennis L. Polla, Nibir K. Dhar, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States); Zhonglin L. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Priyalal S. Wijewarnasuriya, Army Research Lab. (United States); Neil Goldsman, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Martin B. Soprano, U.S. Army (United States)

 

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